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General Articles
Gershon Shafir and Yoav Peled / Being Israeli; The Dynamics of Multiple Citizenship



A timely study by two well-known scholars offers a theoreticallyinformed account of the political sociology of Israel. The analysis is set
within its historical context, as the authors trace Israel’s development from Zionist settlement in the 1880s, through the establishment of the state in 1948, to the present day. Against this background the authors speculate on the relationship between identity and citizenship in Israeli society, and consider the differential rights, duties, and privileges that are accorded different social groups –Jews and Palestinians, Europeans and Middle Eastern Jews, men and women, religiously Orthodox and
non-religious Jews – and how these have evolved. In this way they
demonstrate that, despite ongoing tensions, the pressure of globalization and economic liberalization has gradually transformed Israel from
a warlike welfare society to one more oriented towards peace and private profit. This unexpected conclusion offers some encouragement for
the future of this troubled region. However, Israel’s position towards the peace process is still subject to a tug-of-war between two conceptions of citizenship: liberal citizenship on the one hand, and the combination of colonial republicanism and an ever more religiously defined
ethnonational citizenship on the other.
GERSHON SHAFIR is Professor of Sociology at the University of
California, San Diego. His publications include Land, Labor, and the Origins of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict, 1882–1914 (1989, 1996) and Immigrants and Nationalists (1995). He is the editor of The Citizenship Debates (1998). Yoav Peled is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science, Tel Aviv University. His book, Class and Ethnicity in the Pale: The Political Economy of Jewish Workers’ Nationalism in Late Imperial Russia was published in 1989 and he co-edited Ethnic Challenges to the ModernNation-State (2000). Both authors have co-edited The New Israel: Peacemaking and Liberalization (2000).


Part 1 Fragmented citizenship in a colonial frontier society

2 The virtues of Ashkenazi pioneering 37

3 Mizrachim and women: between quality and quantity 74

4 The frontier within: Palestinians as third-class citizens 110

5 The wages of legitimation: Zionist and non-Zionist Orthodox Jews 137

Part 2 The frontier reopens

6 New day on the frontier 159

7 The frontier erupts: the intifadas 184

Part 3 The emergence of civil society

8 Agents of political change 213

9 Economic liberalization and peacemaking 231

10 The “constitutional revolution” 260

11 Shrinking social rights 278

12 Emergent citizenship groups? Immigrants from the FSU and Ethiopia and overseas labor migrants 308


This book has been many years in the making, and during these years we have incurred many intellectual and material debts to friends, colleagues, and institutions. Many people have read parts of the manuscript at the various stages of its development and have given us valuable comments and suggestions. They are, in alphabetical order, Jos´e Brunner Israel Gershoni, Zvi Gitelman, Dov Khenin, Gal Levy, Ian Lustick, Roger
Owen, Michael Shalev, Yehuda Shenhav, Oren Yiftachel, and Arnona
Zahavi. We would also like to thank for their help to the Israel Science Foundation, the Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East of theUSSocial Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies, the Gershon Gordon Faculty of Social Science and the Department of Political Science, both at Tel Aviv University.


Further reading on Gershon Shafir:





Further reading on Yoav Peled:



http://israel-academia-monitor.com/index.php?type=large_advic&advice_id=121&page_data[id]=178&the_session_id=2aa78d18972c159c8b9ec8575213547a&cookie_lang=en signatory 89


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