Sweden is set to assume the Presidency of the International Holocaust Remembrance of Antisemitism (IHRA) from March 2022 to the end of February 2023. Sweden has taken this role seriously. In October 2021, Sweden hosted the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism, where the leaders of the European Union, the United Nations, and heads of state and government from many countries have met. Forty-seven members of states and several international organizations have participated.
Sweden presented its pledges to fight antisemitism with EUR 9.3 million a year.
In 2022, a museum will be established in Sweden to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust. The Swedish Government will contribute 5.5 million kronor to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation so that this place is preserved, and new generations can build a future from learning, reflecting, and remembering the terrible past.
Sweden pledges “to promote education to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism and to strengthen Holocaust research education for active citizenship to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism will be promoted through a nationwide undertaking conducted by the Swedish National Agency for Education in cooperation with the Living History Forum. It will focus on a wide range of target groups encompassing formal and non-formal education. Activities will be initiated during 2022, with funding allocated by the Swedish Research Council.
Sweden pledges to combat antisemitism and antigypsyism, and other forms of racism, both online and offline. Action programs with measures against antisemitism will be presented in 2022, such as criminalizing all forms of organized racism. The Swedish Government will “consult the Parliament and appoint a parliamentary committee of inquiry to unbiasedly consider whether Holocaust denial should be more clearly criminalized.” Sweden also pledges to “promote Jewish life.” For this, a “government inquiry on a strategy to promote Jewish life in Sweden will be appointed… Funding for security-enhancing measures for civil society, including the Jewish community, will increase significantly from 2022.”
Unfortunately, during the Malmö Forum, Swedish police investigated how the words “the Holocaust was a scam” were projected onto the main synagogue in Malmö and on other buildings in cities across southern Sweden. The Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter reported that the police are handling the case as a hate crime. The Nordic Resistance Movement, a neo-Nazi group, claimed responsibility for the incident.
A group of academics mounted a much more sophisticated attack on the Malmo Forum. They wrote the Forum urging to reject and counter the “instrumentalization” of antisemitism. For them, several of the IHRA examples are “being weaponized against human rights organizations and solidarity activists who denounce Israel’s occupation and human rights violations.” The seven IHRA examples concerning Israel “legitimize wrongful accusations of antisemitism, which serve as a warning for anyone voicing criticism of Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. This has a chilling effect on free speech and academic freedom and compromises the fight against antisemitism. Regrettably, this clear abuse of the IHRA definition and of the examples has so far not been acknowledged by governments and parliaments that have adopted it.” Instead, the group offers the alternative definition of antisemitism that was launched the year before, the Jerusalem Declaration on Antisemitism (JDA).
The JDA was an initiative of a number of scholars from the US, Israel, Europe, and the UK, “who have vast experience with the IHRA definition.” For the group, “the JDA is clearer and more coherent than the IHRA definition. Without any underlying political agenda, it offers guidance concerning political speech where the IHRA definition has created muddle and controversy.”
Not surprisingly, the letter to the Malmo Forum boasts several Israeli academics as signatories, including Moshe Behar; Jose Brunner; Amos Goldberg; David Shulman; Moshe Zimmermann, and Moshe Zuckermann. IAM reported in the past on their anti-Israel/pro-Palestinian activism, including borderline antisemitism.
For example, Prof. Goldberg has espoused the equivalence between the Holocaust and the Palestinian Nakba.
Prof. Zimmerman found similarities “Between Hebron youth and Hitler Youth, between the motivation and conditions of service in some of the IDF’s elite units and that of the Waffen SS, between Israeli soccer fans and those of the Third Reich, and between the Old Testament and Mein Kampf.” Zimmerman, a well-known scholar and head of the Minerva Center for German History at the Hebrew University, must be aware that the Waffen-SS, the military branch of the SS has been involved in some of the most heinous crimes against Jews and other civilians during WWII. During the Nuremberg Trials the Waffen-SS was declared a criminal organization responsible for the murder of millions. Zimmerman’s comparison between “the motivation and the condition of service in some of the IDF’s elite units” and the Waffen-SS is a malevolent act of antisemitism that the IHRA definition seeks to target.
Prof. Zuckermann wrote in his book Shoah Baheder Haatum, that “The Zionist collective which cannot escape the truth, that every “deviation” in Gaza, every victim of a “warning shot in the air” in the West Bank, that every act of brutal suppression is distancing it from the ethical and humane conduct befitting victims of the Holocaust, and is moving it into the realm of a mentality represented by the identity of the murderers.”
Others seem to give to wanton outbursts of rage similar to blood libel. Dr. Behar, Program Director of Arabic & Middle Eastern Studies, University of Manchester, is a case in point. In a recent comment on Facebook concerning Israel Academia Monitor (IAM), he commented, “There are not many expectations from a person [IAM] whose entire livelihood is built on allowing blood spill, incitement and lies… You do nothing but allow blood to spill. And what do you think gave birth to Baruch Goldstein and Yigal Amir if not people like you… There is a close connection between you and murderous violence against non-Jews and democratic Jews (bombing of [Zeev] Sternhell).”
Antisemitism has surged around the world to levels not seen since WWII. The IHRA working definition is among the few tools available to fight it. Scholars who oppose it legitimize this new wave of antisemitism. They may not necessarily wish to protect free speech but rather to spread antisemitic ideas. The IHRA working definition prevents them from doing so.
Sweden’s pledges at the Malmö Forum
Published 13 September 2021
Sweden will assume the Presidency of the IHRA from March 2022 to the end of February 2023. This was Sweden’s first pledge in connection with the Malmö Forum. Pledges presented at the Malmö Forum will be followed up during the Swedish Presidency. The ambition of the Swedish Government is to implement the measures below and allocate a total amount of approximately EUR 9.3 million/year.
We pledge to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust
A museum to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust will be established in Sweden in 2022. The activities of the museum will be built up and formed over the years to come. One starting point is that stories of Holocaust survivors with a connection to Sweden will be at the core of the museum’s activities. A Swedish-language version of the Dimensions in Testimony installation (developed by the Shoah Foundation) that allows visitors to interact with Holocaust survivors via pre-recorded answers to questions – using artificial intelligence technology – will be spread by the museum to schools and other museums all over the country.
The Swedish Government will make a contribution of 5,5 million kronor to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, so that this place is preserved and new generations can build a future from learning, reflecting and remembering the terrible past.
We pledge to promote education to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism and to strengthen Holocaust research
Education for active citizenship to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism will be promoted through a nationwide undertaking conducted by the Swedish National Agency for Education in cooperation with the Living History Forum. It will focus on a wide range of target groups encompassing formal and non-formal education.
Activities, based on the recommendations of the Swedish Research Council’s survey of Swedish research on the Holocaust and antisemitism, including groups such as the Roma and antigypsyism, will be initiated during 2022, with funding allocated by the Swedish Research Council.
We pledge to combat antisemitism, antigypsyism and other forms of racism – online and offline
An action programme with measures against antisemitism will be presented in 2022. Action programmes targeting antigypsyism, islamophobia, Afrophobia and racism against the Sami will also be presented. The IHRA working definitions of antisemitism and antigypsyism/Roma discrimination will be considered in these respective programmes. The programmes will e.g. include measures in the field of education, continued and enhanced efforts by the police to counter racism and hate crime, as well as an assignment to the Swedish Defence Research Agency to continuously monitor antisemitism and other forms of racism, hate speech and violent extremism in digital environments.
Organised racism and support for organised racism will be criminalised. The Government will also consult the Parliament and appoint a parliamentary committee of inquiry to unbiasedly consider whether Holocaust denial should be more clearly criminalised.
We pledge to promote Jewish life, strengthen Roma inclusion and enhance security for civil society
A government inquiry on a strategy to promote Jewish life in Sweden will be appointed. The National strategy for Roma inclusion will continue and permanent resources will be allocated from 2022. Language centres for Yiddish and Romani will be established.
Funding for security-enhancing measures for civil society, including the Jewish community, will increase significantly from 2022.
Pledges presented at the
Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism
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At the invitation of Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden, Heads of State and Government, ministers and other representatives of governments, international organisations, civil society organisations, companies, researchers, experts and survivors of the Holocaust gathered in Malmö the 13 October 2021 at the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism – Remember ReAct. In total 74 delegations participated.
Determined to strengthen the work on Holocaust remembrance and to combat antisemitism and other forms of racism, both nationally and internationally participants affirmed their commitment to Holocaust remembrance, Holocaust education, antisemitism on social media, and combating antisemitism, antigypsyism and other forms of racism.
Taking into account the Stockholm Declaration adopted at the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust held in 2000 and the 2020 International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) Ministerial Declaration, participants at the Malmö Forum pledged to strengthen their work and international cooperation in this area.
The pledges made by participants, listed below, will be followed up during the Swedish Presidency of the IHRA, March 2022–February 2023.
Pledges are presented in their entirety as formulated by the participants of the Malmö Forum (as per 30 November 2021). The Swedish Government Offices does not take responsibility for the content or formulation of pledges made by others than Sweden.
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Pledges presented at the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism
Countries ………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1. Albania ……………………………………………………………………………….. 6
2. Argentina …………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3. Australia ……………………………………………………………………………… 8
4. Austria ………………………………………………………………………………… 8
5. Belgium …………………………………………………………………………….. 15
6. Bosnia and Herzegovina ……………………………………………………… 16
7. Bulgaria …………………………………………………………………………….. 18
8. Canada …………………………………………………………………………….. 19
9. Croatia ……………………………………………………………………………… 21
10. Cyprus…………………………………………………………………………….. 22
11. Denmark …………………………………………………………………………. 22
12. Estonia ……………………………………………………………………………. 24
13. Finland ……………………………………………………………………………. 24
14. France …………………………………………………………………………….. 25
15. Germany …………………………………………………………………………. 26
16. Greece ……………………………………………………………………………. 29
17. Hungary ………………………………………………………………………….. 30
18. Ireland …………………………………………………………………………….. 31
19. Israel ………………………………………………………………………………. 33
20. Italy ………………………………………………………………………………… 34
21. Latvia ……………………………………………………………………………… 34
22. Lithuania …………………………………………………………………………. 35
23. Luxemburg ………………………………………………………………………. 39
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24. Moldova ………………………………………………………………………….. 40
25. Monaco …………………………………………………………………………… 41
26. North Macedonia ………………………………………………………………. 43
27. Norway ……………………………………………………………………………. 44
28. Poland …………………………………………………………………………….. 45
29. Portugal …………………………………………………………………………… 47
30. Romania ………………………………………………………………………….. 47
31. Rwanda …………………………………………………………………………… 49
32. Serbia……………………………………………………………………………… 50
33. Slovakia ………………………………………………………………………….. 51
34. Slovenia ………………………………………………………………………….. 52
35. Spain ………………………………………………………………………………. 54
36. Sweden …………………………………………………………………………… 55
37. Switzerland ……………………………………………………………………… 57
38. The Czech Republic ………………………………………………………….. 57
39. The Netherlands ………………………………………………………………. 58
40. Turkey …………………………………………………………………………….. 59
41. Ukraine ……………………………………………………………………………. 61
42. United Kingdom ……………………………………………………………….. 62
43. United States of America …………………………………………………… 63
International organisations …………………………………………………… 64
44. European Commission ………………………………………………………. 64
45. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights ………………….. 66
46. International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) …………. 67
47. OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) ……………………………………………………………………………….. 68
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48. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) ……………………………………………………………………………. 69
Civil Society organisations …………………………………………………… 70
49. American Jewish Committee ………………………………………………. 70
50. Anti-defamation league ……………………………………………………… 71
51. B’nai B’rith International …………………………………………………….. 71
52. European Jewish Congress ……………………………………………….. 72
53. European Roma Rights Centre …………………………………………… 74
54. The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA World) ………………………………………………………… 75
55. World Jewish Congress …………………………………………………….. 76
Private sector ………………………………………………………………………. 80
56. Facebook ………………………………………………………………………… 80
57. Google & YouTube …………………………………………………………… 81
58. TikTok …………………………………………………………………………….. 83
Others …………………………………………………………………………………. 84
59. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum …………………………. 84
60. Yad Vashem ……………………………………………………………………. 84
Annex ………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
Participants at Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism, 13 October 2021 ……. 86
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Albania pledges to continue to educate and help its society especially younger generations to understand the evils of anti-Semitism and commits to oppose to the Holocaust denial.
In this context, in addition to initiatives already undertaken in Albania against anti-Semitism, including through education curricula, Albania pledges: To translate and publish in Albanian the four-volume publication on Addressing Anti-Semitism in Schools: Training Curricula for trainers of primary school teachers, secondary school teachers, vocational school teachers, and school principals. These curricula will aim to strengthening the capacity of school principals and teachers to prevent and respond to anti-Semitism.
A didactic package to be supplemented with other publications produced by ODIHR such as:
Addressing Anti-Semitism through Education: Guidelines for Policymakers;
Training and Addressing Anti-Semitism in Schools: Educational Videos.
Teaching about Holocaust: continue the inclusion of the topic in the new school textbooks Teachers will continue to refer to materials produced by the Council of Europe, such as the “Guidelines for teachers and educators” for teaching about the Holocaust, publication of UNESCO, ODIHR, recommendations for teaching and learning about the holocaust- 2019, IHRA.
Training of teachers and education professionals:
History teacher, civic education teacher and geography teachers to receive training on how to deal with discrimination.
Enriching the section of the National Historical Museum in Tirana dedicated to the Holocaust since 2004 and consisting of photographs, texts, maps, and wartime documents.
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Opening the Cultural Center for Albanian-Jewish relations in Tirana and Jerusalem, an initiative taken by PM Rama. (DCM No 246, 25.10.2019)
Establishing the Albanian Jewish Museum in the city of Vlora, a proposal of the Ministry of Culture approved by the National Council of Museums in July 2020. Currently there is an international competition for the project design supported through collaboration by Jewish Museums curators.
We also pledge to invest and develop further the Solomon Museum in Berat.
Investing in Jewish Museum in Berat will be followed up by the pledge of Mayor of Tirana to turn into museums the Tirana Houses that sheltered Jews. This promise was declared during the Albania-Israel cultural festival taking place in Tirana, by the Mayor of Tirana Erion Veliaj focusing on the relations between the Albanian and Jewish people, expressed pride in the protection of Jews in our country during the Holocaust.
Proposal I: “Argentina is committed to continuing the fight against anti-Semitism, a commitment that will be reflected in the new National Plan against Discrimination 2021-2024 that is being prepared by INADI” (source: INADI).
Proposal II: “The Argentine State, according to the National Education Law 26.206 art. 3 and 92 and in the Resolutions of the Federal Council of Education N ° 80/09, 188/12 and 269/15 and in the Priority Learning Centers, has the objective to consolidate an educational policy that promotes the teaching of subjects related to the violation of human rights in order to build a democratic citizenship.
In relation to the teaching of the Holocaust and the fight against anti-Semitism, the Ministry of Education, through the Education and Memory program, is committed to carry out:
• Training actions for teachers with a national scope;
• Accompaniment and assistance to technical teams for the insertion of topics in schools in the provinces;
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• Develop educational materials for the implementation of the contents related to the teaching of the Holocaust and the fight against anti-Semitism.
Australia recognises the importance of continuing to act with regards to racism in the community and welcomes the Australian Human Rights Commission’s ongoing consultations on developing a National Anti-Racism Framework.
Australia pledges to support efforts to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust by undertaking and promoting activities of Holocaust Memorial week and International Holocaust Remembrance Day (January 27).
Australia pledges to call out antisemitism online, facilitate public reporting to online service providers, and encourage public engagement in this process.
Australia welcomes the upcoming Gandel Philanthropy and Deakin University Holocaust Knowledge and Awareness in Australia survey, the first and largest of its kind, which will assist research and future policy directions.
To further endeavours on preserving and passing on the memory of the Holocaust, Australia is working toward Holocaust Museums or Education Centres in each jurisdiction. We appreciate the ongoing assistance and leadership of philanthropic organisations to fulfil this ambition.
Pledge: New Austrian exhibition in Auschwitz
A new Austrian exhibition is being created to go on display at the former concentration and extermination camp and present-day State Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau. It is accommodated on the ground floor of Block 17 of Auschwitz I, where the first Austrian exhibition was on display from 1978 to 2013.
The original exhibition was initiated and co-conceived by former inmates. It reflected the then prevalent victim paradigm. In 2009, the Austrian Federal Government decided to renew the exhibition. The National Fund was
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entrusted with the tasks of renewing the content and design of the exhibition and overseeing the challenging restoration of the former inmate block 17, a listed building, to ensure that it is fit to house the new exhibition.
Following a pan-European call to tender the National Fund appointed a team led by curator Hannes Sulzenbacher and architect Martin Kohlbauer to conceive and design the new exhibition.
The new exhibition bears the title “Far Removed. Austria and Auschwitz”. The notion “far removed” refers to the geographical distance between Austria and Auschwitz, which was part of the Nazi strategy to conceal the genocide. At the same time, removal was synonymous with extermination: it meant the physical removal of the deportees – from Austria and from the realm of the living. The main elements of the exhibition consist of three interdependent and yet interrelated levels: “Here” (Auschwitz), “There” (Austria) and “The Void”.
The exhibition will portray the fates of the Austrian victims in Auschwitz, the acts of resistance carried out by Austrian inmates there and the involvement of Austrians as perpetrators of and accessories to the atrocities committed there. As well as providing historical information, it will also provide a space for collective commemoration and private remembrance.
The exhibition will open in autumn 2021.
As a place or remembrance and learning, it is to be hoped that it will help fostering the understanding and dialogue between the generations and people with different religious, national and ethnic backgrounds.
Pledge: Stepping up training for educators and adapting teacher training curricula
Currently an IHRA co-funded international research project is conducted to develop a catalogue of qualifications and measures for appropriate initial training as well as further training for teachers in the areas of the Holocaust and National Socialism as well as the prevention of antisemitism (also in the context of anti-racist educational work). For Austria, the research is carried out by _erinnern.at_, the Holocaust Education Institute of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research.
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The recommendations of the international research group will be implemented both in the training curricula of teachers and in programs for teacher further training. To this end a thorough evaluation of Austrian teacher training curricula will be carried out which will result in respective adaptations of initial and further training for educators.
Furthermore, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education plans the expansion of educational offers for educators to enable them to appropriately deal with current challenges with regard to antisemitism and racism in classroom.
To support this goal cooperation and exchange measures with international educational institutions, including Israel will be expanded.
Pledge: Systematic hate crime data collection and police training
The Austrian Federal Ministry of the Interior (BMI) has implemented “hate crime” as an international monitoring definition since July 2019. Since then, the BMI has worked on improving the systematic recognition of bias motives in criminal charges as part of a two-year EU-co-funded project. 17 consultations with civil society organisations, especially with the Jewish Community of Vienna, have taken place. For the training of approximately 30,000 police officers nationwide, a comprehensive e-learning seminar was developed. Face-to-face trainings are carried out by 207 specially trained instructors.
On 1 November 2020, the “Motive” tab was activated in the police data processing system in order to recognise “bias motives according to victim group”. As a result, data is transmitted automatically to the judiciary via a specially created interface using “E-Justice”. There are 9 categories of bias motive: age, disability, gender, skin colour, national/ethnic origin, religion, sexual orientation, social status and ideology/political views.
Data (November 2020 to April 2021) was statistically evaluated and a pilot report was published in July 2021. In 1,936 bias-motivated crimes, 2,401 bias motives were registered. Two details concerning antisemitism stand out: Firstly, offences against public order, in particular hate speech and those under the law banning National Socialist activities (the Prohibition Act), were especially prevalent in the categories skin colour and the Jewish faith. Secondly, concerning the sites of the crimes, a large proportion of online
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crimes detected was committed – again – due to “skin colour” or Jewish affiliation.
Systematic recognition of bias motives in criminal charges has been fully implemented within the police force and this system is now being developed further with a victim-centered approach – in close cooperation with the Jewish Community of Vienna in particular.
Pledge: National strategy against antisemitism
On 21 January 2021, the Austrian Federal Government has presented the National Strategy to combat and prevent all forms of antisemitism. The strategy was developed by several ministries and with the involvement of the Jewish community and relevant organisations.
The strategy draws together 38 concrete measures within the fields of security, law enforcement, education and research, integration and at the level of the whole society.
One of the main tasks is to join forces, create better coordination and clear structures, through regular exchange with the Jewish communities and the broadest possible involvement of all public actors and civil society organisations. To this end, a new coordinating task force in the Federal Chancellery, the central body of the Austrian governmental institutions, was established.
Another important measure is a new legislative act ensuring a yearly financial support of 4 million Euro to the Jewish community. It aims to offer sustainable prospects to Jews in Austria. They need an outlook for a life in peace, stability, and security, the provision of services such as schools, cultural and social events.
The national strategy sets out a holistic approach to prevent and combat all forms of antisemitism, and foster Jewish life in Austria. It aims to provide prospects to Jews in Austria and thereby safeguard the continuation of Jewish life in Austria for generations to come.
Pledge: Centre for research on Antisemitism at the Austrian Academy of Sciences
Austria is currently implementing the recently finalised “National Strategy against Antisemitism”, which also mentions research on antisemitism.
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The Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research expressly welcomes the efforts of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW) to tackle the lack of structured, multi-perspective antisemitism research in the Austrian academic landscape.
Until 2023, the OeAW will establish a centre for research on antisemitism – supported by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research. The focus will be on interdisciplinary basic research on antisemitism, anti-Judaism, and anti-Zionism regarding causes, manifestations, and effects in the present, with a focus on Austria and Europe.
Pledge: Simon Wiesenthal Prize
In view of the darkest chapter of its history, Austria has a special historical responsibility. Part of this is fighting antisemitism, which has taken on many faces today.
In 2021, for the first time, the National Fund of the Republic of Austria for Victims of National Socialism will confer the annual Simon Wiesenthal Prize1 for outstanding civic engagement to combat antisemitism and/or promote Holocaust education endowed annually with a total of 30,000 euros.
The international award is named after Holocaust survivor and so-called Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal (1908–2005) who had an unparalleled impact on dealing with Nazi crimes. An unshakeable admonisher of antisemitism, he made it his life’s work to foster remembrance of the victims of Nazi terror and bring Nazi criminals to justice.
The Simon Wiesenthal Prize aims to recognize individuals or groups from civil society who follow his example by making an outstanding contribution through their special civic engagement to combat antisemitism and/or to promote Holocaust education.
The winner(s) of the Simon Wiesenthal Prize shall be selected by the Board of Trustees of the National Fund on the basis of the shortlist drawn up by a jury.
The Simon Wiesenthal Prize Jury consists of six members:
1 Federal Law Gazette I no. 94/2020
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• The family of Simon Wiesenthal has appointed as their representative Ariel Muzicant, Vice-President of the European Jewish Congress (EJC) and former President of the Jewish Community Vienna.
Other members are:
• Oskar Deutsch, President of the Jewish Religious Community in Austria,
as well as recognized figures from public or cultural life or persons with an academic reputation. As such, we are happy to welcome to the jury:
• Brigitte Bailer(-Galanda), lecturer in Contemporary History at the University of Vienna.
• Katharina von Schnurbein, Antisemitism Officer of the EU Commission.
• Barbara Stelzl-Marx, University Professor of Contemporary European History at Karl Franzens University Graz and Director of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Research on the Consequences of War, Graz
• Monika Schwarz-Friesel, professor at the Institute for Language and Communication at the TU Berlin
The Simon Wiesenthal Prize aims at fostering and reinforcing awareness and efforts within society to fight antisemitism and educate people about the Holocaust.
Pledge: Training the judiciary:
The Austrian judiciary is particularly concerned with providing well-founded training in the context of antisemitism, racism and National Socialism.
In the area of training for judicial trainees, two periodic training events in particular, which are mandatory, deal in detail with fundamental rights in the context of judicial history and current affairs:
Curriculum on judicial and contemporary history for trainee judges
Duration: 1 week
Curriculum on basic rights for trainee judges
Duration: 3 days
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In the area of further training, the seminar series “Justice and Contemporary History” for judges and public prosecutors deals with the topic.
Duration: 1.5–2 days
The IHRA working definition of antisemitism is used by the trainers and in the training materials of the two above-mentioned seminars, as well as in specific seminars for candidate judges, judges and prosecutors on hate crimes and the law banning National Socialist activities (the Prohibition Act).
In addition, in 2020 comprehensive information on the IHRA working definition was published on the intranet for all judicial staff.
The Austrian judiciary provides assurance that these training activities will be continued and that it will continuously develop and grow its programme.
Pledge: Shoa wall of names memorial
More than 64,000 Jewish Holocaust victims from Austria shall not be forgotten. In order to create a place of remembrance, the Memorial to the Jewish children, women and men of Austria who were murdered in the Shoah is now being erected in Vienna.
A Holocaust survivor from Austria, Kurt Yakov Tutter initiated this memorial. Born in Vienna in 1930, he had to flee Austria. His parents perished in the Holocaust. His longing for a place of personal remembrance, which he shares with many survivors and descendants of the victims, was a motivation for his commitment to the project.
The realisation of the memorial began in the Year of Remembrance 2018.
The project is being implemented and funded by the Federal Government, which provided the main part of the financing, the Federal Provinces, the City of Vienna, the Federation of Austrian Industries and the Austrian National Bank. It is under the patronage of the President of the Austrian National Council. The costs amount to around 5.3 million Euros.
Names and dates for the Memorial are based on the Shoah Victim Database by the Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance (DÖW). From 1992 to 2001, the DÖW recorded the biographical data and circumstances of death of around 62,000 Austrian Holocaust victims. In the summer of 2020, there was a global appeal to review the names. After years of intensive research,
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the database currently contains records on 64,435 persons (as at March 2021).
The ideal location for the Shoah Wall of Names Memorial was found in Ostarrichi Park in Vienna’s 9th district – a green area in front of the Austrian National Bank, named after the oldest form of Austria’s name, “Ostarrîchi”.
Construction work began in June 2020. The Wall of Names will comprise 180 stone slabs on which the victims’ names are engraved. Several of the slabs have already been set in place. It is already an impressive sight.
A separate plaque will commemorate all other groups of victims persecuted under National Socialism.
The inauguration of the Shoah Wall of Names Memorial will take place on 9 November 2021. It will be a central yet peaceful place to commemorate the fate of the victims and to honour their lives. Due to the historical importance of the memorial, the City of Vienna and the National Fund will jointly assume responsibility for its maintenance and ongoing operation.
Belgium remains deeply concerned about the rise of antisemitism, online as well as offline, and especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The federal government is, in collaboration with the regions, taking its responsibility to strongly respond to and curb antisemitic incidents and hate crimes.
The federal government pledges to take further measures to strengthen the protection of victims, including its work on improving recording and collecting data on hate incidents and hate crimes by law enforcement and judicial authorities. The aim is to develop an efficient and effective method that makes it possible to register the hate motive in a consistent way in the registration systems of the police and judiciary. In doing so, more detailed and more reliable figures on hate crimes, hate speech and discrimination will become available, as well as specific figures on antisemitic offences. Reliable official data is essential for developing policy measures which will effectively counter antisemitism offline and online.
In its aim to further the efforts to combat antisemitism, Belgium is currently working on the adoption of a comprehensive and horizontal national action plan against racism. This plan is prepared by the governments of the federal State, the Regions and Communities, together with experts, affected
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communities and civil society to further the goal of countering all forms of racism that undermine human rights. The first Belgian national action plan against racism will cover issues ranging from education, employment, housing, health care to the justice systems The plan will mainstreams an anti-racism approach in all policies it also tackles specific forms of racism, including antisemitism.
The Community governments competent inter alia for education, will continue supporting many existing initiatives to tackle antisemitism, especially in the field of education. Including financial support to develop didactic materials and training about the holocaust, antisemitism and remembrance education, amongst others to further roll out of the IHRA Recommendations for Teaching and Learning about the Holocaust.
6. Bosnia and Herzegovina
Chairman of the Presidency Željko Komšić
This year marks the 76th anniversary of the most brutal crime of the last century. It will remain forever engraved in the memory of civilization.
The Holocaust, a unique and systematically planned crime against one nation – the Jews, has left lasting consequences on the society we live in. The genocide committed against Jews, Croats – political opponents of the Ustasha regime, Serbs and Roma in Jasenovac left unforeseeable consequences and has shown how dangerous and evil the human mind can be. The events of the Second World War left a deep mark on all of us. We have the daily obligation to fight against all forms of ideologies born from hatred, segregation and intolerance.
Unfortunately, despite the painstaking struggle against the divisions and inhuman actions, recent history also remembers the suffering of innocent victims of all ethnic groups. That includes crimes committed in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the early 1990s. The genocide committed in Srebrenica, in the heart of Europe, took lives of a large number of victims. It once again showed that great criminal ideologies are not a matter of the past. They still exist in the present too.
As witnesses of the dark side of history, we have an obligation to keep talking about it and not allow it to happen again. My obligation, as a politician, is to be persistent and concrete in my fight against any kind of divisions, fascism, antisemitism and all other forms of intolerance and
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discrimination. My moral obligation is to promote civilizational values in the society I live in and to work on improving mutual relations. I want to build a future where fundamental human freedoms, rule of law and moral values will prevail.
My country, Bosnia and Herzegovina, has been a home to Jews and members of other ethnic groups for centuries. That particular diversity, that we need to preserve and respect, is our greatest wealth. Preservation of the Jewish cultural heritage and the heritage of all people living in Bosnia and Herzegovina should be a positive story to guide the future generations. It is our obligation to educate young people about everything that has happened in the past so that they can be able to appreciate the society in which they live now even more.
The International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism is a great opportunity to exchange experiences and send clear messages as leaders of the countries we represent here. Unfortunately, fascism and antisemitism are gaining strength throughout the world. We need to act in a timely manner to prevent them from spreading any further.
Member of the Presidency Šefik Džaferović
While attending the last year’s 75th Anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camp Auschwitz, in a memorial complex located at the site of that concentration camp, I was deeply shaken by the survivors’ testimonies.
The death industry devised by Nazi criminals was the largest killing machinery in human history. If there is an illustration of absolute evil, then it is this very crime, without precedent.
At the same time, if there is an absolute symbol of human strength, it is the strength of the surviving victims who, despite their immense suffering, were able to testify on their own behalf, but also on the behalf of all of those who did not get to see freedom and peace.
Seventy-six years later, we can only feel hope that humanity will be redeemed through reflection, unreserved respect for human life, and effective efforts to finally stop the evil of hatred, segregation, and crime, once and for all.
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The crimes committed during the last war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the Srebrenica genocide, testified in a frightening way that the world has failed to learn its most important lessons.
In this place, I wish to reaffirm my commitment to preserving memory and truth.
On that note, I will initiate the activities of the Srebrenica Memorial Center, in cooperation with the Jewish community and institutions dedicated to preserving the Holocaust memory, with the aim of implementing a special project within the Srebrenica Memorial Center dedicated to protecting the memories of crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia during Holocaust.
The Bulgarian society has a long-standing historic tradition of tolerance. On this solid basis, the Republic of Bulgaria has pursued a consistent policy aimed at preventing and eliminating any form of discrimination, in particular antisemitism.
The Republic of Bulgaria is a full member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) and has adopted the Alliance’s working definition of antisemitism.
In the light of its participation in the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism, the Republic of Bulgaria has identified four strands of work that would further enhance the effect of the efforts to fight against antisemitism, intolerance and hate speech.
The position of the National Coordinator on Combating Antisemitism will be upgraded into a permanent one, at the level of Deputy Minister of Foreign Affair. The initial appointment of a National Coordinator in 2017 has led to visible improvements in the coordination of the relevant ministries, other authorities and the civil society.
The Government will work with the leading sport clubs to encourage the adoption and application in their activities of the Working Definition of Antisemitism. Bulgaria has started already a nationwide campaign for the definition’s adoption by the leading Bulgarian universities.
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The Bulgarian authorities will work for the establishment of a permanent exhibition at the National History Museum and/or a virtual “Pantheon of Saviours”, dedicated to the saving of the Bulgarian Jewish citizens during WWII. Among others, this will provide an additional tool to spread the knowledge about a major positive example of how the active and massive engagement of citizens can stop occurrences of intolerance and hate speech, in particular antisemitism.
The Republic of Bulgaria will finalize the National Action Plan on Combating Antisemitism by the end of 2022. It will be drafted through a joint project of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Bulgaria and the Norwegian Centre for Holocaust and Minority Studies. The National Action Plan will further consolidate the comprehensive and systematic approach in the fight against antisemitism.
The Government of Canada unequivocally condemns the disturbing rise of antisemitism at home and abroad. Canada is committed to reinforcing efforts to advance Holocaust awareness, remembrance and research, and to combat antisemitism as key elements of the promotion and protection of human rights globally. We know that antisemitism is not a problem for the Jewish community to solve alone, it is a challenge for all of us, especially governments, to take on. The Government of Canada will always stand with the Jewish community to fight antisemitism and hatred in all its forms. To that end, since November 2020, the Honourable Irwin Cotler, Canada’s first Special Envoy on Preserving Holocaust Remembrance and Combatting Antisemitism, has worked to promote Holocaust education, remembrance, and research, as Canada continues working with partners at home and around the world to fight against hate and intolerance, including convening the National Summit on Antisemitism in July 2021.
Antisemitism has no place in Canada or elsewhere. The Government of Canada commits therefore to the following pledges today:
We pledge to combat antisemitism, Holocaust denial and distortion, hate crimes and all other forms of racism and to protect at-risk communities
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• As part of a renewed Anti-Racism Strategy, we will engage with Jewish communities in the development of our National Action Plan on Combatting Hate.
• Establishing the Special Envoy on Preserving Holocaust Remembrance and Combatting Antisemitism as a permanent position, supported by dedicated resources.
• We will strengthen the Canada Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code to more effectively combat online antisemitism and hate.
• We will introduce legislation to combat serious forms of harmful online content.
We pledge to promote awareness about the Holocaust and antisemitism in Canada
• Building on lessons learned regarding the increase of antisemitism and of Holocaust distortion, we will continue to expand publicly accessible Holocaust-related material and to bring awareness to the dangers of antisemitism. This will include using the historical legacy of Raoul Wallenberg – Hero of the Holocaust and Canada’s first honorary citizen – as an inspirational role model for educational purposes.
We pledge to continue supporting the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) and to promoting the IHRA working definition of antisemitism
• We will continue to enhance the adoption and implementation of the IHRA working definition of antisemitism.
• We will encourage mainstreaming the implementation of the definition to dovetail with the Canadian adoption of the IHRA definition in June 2019, as part of Canada’s federal anti-racism strategy (2019-2022).
• We will work internationally to encourage broader cross-regional representation at the IHRA, toward a more inclusive organization.
We are reminded every day that antisemitism is still very much alive. Its new and resurgent forms require constant vigilance and action. Canada remains
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unwavering in its commitment to challenge antisemitism wherever and whenever it occurs and to build more just and inclusive societies.
We pledge the IHRA Presidency from March 2023 to the end of February 2024
• As IHRA Presidency, Croatia will continue to promote cooperation among IHRA member states in the field of Holocaust research, education and remembrance as well as countering Holocaust distortion and denial, while at the same time fostering our shared responsibility in fighting antisemitism, intolerance and hate speech. This is Croatia’s umbrella pledge that confirms our strong commitment to IHRA’s activities and goals. For the preparation and implementation of Presidency activities we intend to allocate all necessary funds and resources, including establishing a dedicated inter-agency working body.
We pledge to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust
• Croatia will continue with efforts to strengthen the activities and content of the Jasenovac Memorial Site, with continuous consideration of the modernization and upgrading of museum material. Croatian Government will logistically and financially support the introduction of high technology and contemporary approaches in the presentation and interpretation of historical content.
We pledge to promote education to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism and to strengthen Holocaust research
• In 2022, in cooperation with the Mémorial de la Shoah Museum, Croatia will continue to participate in organization of international seminars in the form of expert dialogues with neighboring countries, one with Italy and Slovenia and the other with Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. In cooperation with Yad Vashem, Croatia will continue to upgrade its education programmes intended to raise the awareness among the young population about the Holocaust.
We pledge to combat antisemitism, anti-Roma discrimination and other forms of racism – online and offline
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• In accordance with the Operative Program for National Minorities for the period 2021-2024, Croatian Government will intensify activities aimed at countering violence and hate speech, especially towards the vulnerable groups and national minorities. It will continue to raise awareness that discrimination, public hate speech and incitement to violence are unacceptable and will be prosecuted, in accordance with the provisions of the Criminal Code and Anti-discrimination Act.
We pledge to continue strengthening Roma inclusion, including by strengthening civil society
• In accordance with the new National Plan for Roma inclusion for the period 2021-2027, Croatian Government will continue to increase the funding allocated for the main pillars of Roma inclusion – education, employment, housing and health.
The Republic of Cyprus, despite its newly established participation in the Alliance, is swiftly taking substantial steps to underscore the value of our participation.
Cyprus adopted the IHRA definition for Antisemitism in 2019. Procedures are now under way to also adopt the IHRA definition on Holocaust Denial and Distortion, not only as a tribute to victims and survivors, but also as an indispensable tool for education and training.
In addition, a specialized training program on anti-semitism is being planned for police and law enforcement officers. Let me also mention that, as we did last year, we are again proceeding with a voluntary contribution to IHRA.
We pledge to step up our fight against antisemitism significantly
The Danish Government will present a comprehensive plan to fight antisemitism in Denmark in the near future. The overarching goal of the plan is to strengthen the general resilience against antisemitism and to ensure that antisemitism does not take root in Denmark.
We pledge to protect the Danish Jews
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The Danish Government will keep its promise to protect the Danish Jews. We will continue to uphold a high level of protection around Jewish institutions in Denmark in close cooperation with the Jewish Community in Denmark.
We pledge to strengthen our knowledge about contemporary forms of antisemitism in Denmark
We will strengthen monitoring of antisemitic incidents and through research increase our understanding of contemporary forms of antisemitism.
We pledge to develop tools to detect and counter antisemitism in schools and on the work place
The plan will aim at improving the way the Danish authorities handle antisemitic incidents in order to improve support for victims of antisemitism and strengthen the cooperation and coordination among relevant Danish authorities and the Danish Jewish Society.
We pledge to strengthen education on Holocaust and other genocides
The plan will focus on how schools and institutions educate children and young people about antisemitism and how we define antisemitism. No child in Denmark should leave school without being taught about the six million Jews who died in the horrors of Holocaust – and about those who survived and were saved through courageous civic actions.
We pledge to teach ourselves on and sustain Jewish life in Denmark
We want not only to fight antisemitism, so that Jews can live safely and freely in the Danish society. We want to create the conditions to sustain Jewish life for generations to come. This will be achieved through a comprehensive plan that also addresses education and information about Jews, Jewish life, history and practices.
We pledge to strengthen our focus on antisemitism internationally
Denmark will underline the importance of fighting antisemitism and respecting human rights and non-discrimination globally when participating in international fora.
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Estonia commits itself
1. to safeguarding the memory of the Holocaust.
We intend to mark with dignity the remaining Holocaust-related sites in Estonia. In November, a memorial stone to the Estonian Jews killed in 1941/42 will be consecrated at the Liiva graveyard in Tallinn.
2. to vigorously combatting antisemitism.
We will implement the recently adopted governmental policy for combatting antisemitism by all means and measures, both in the field of security and safety, as well as Holocaust remembrance and education in the broadest sense. Our policy is guided by the non-legally binding working definition of antisemitism adopted by IHRA member-states.
Finland commits itself to ensure that all national and religious communities and minorities can feel safe in our country. We are committed to safeguarding human rights, freedom, tolerance and equality in our society.
Finland will make sure that freedom of speech is not confused with hate speech. We will make sure that incitement against anyone based on descent, national or ethnic background or religion does not pass in our country as free speech. It is hate speech and will be treated as such.
High-quality research and education is a key means of preventing antisemitism and other forms of discrimination in our society. Finland will continue to invest in research and communication concerning The Holocaust. We will translate all relevant documents into Finnish and Swedish and will make sure that they are used in education and research.
Finland has a strong research tradition concerning The Holocaust. We will make sure that this tradition continues and the actions of Finnish authorities and individuals in The Second World War are brought to light without any interference from the Finnish authorities.
The Constitution of Finland guarantees freedom of religion and freedom of conscience. We will make sure that all places of worship are protected by the national authorities. Finland has strong legislation concerning freedom of
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speech and thought and we will make sure that all people residing in Finland can live freely and practice their faith without fearing for their security. We will also make sure that religious communities can fully exert their influence on the legislation that concerns them.
In its international activities, Finland will make sure that international organizations, such as the UN, the OSCE and the Council of Europe, continue to tackle these issues. We will also consider bringing them up in the framework of Nordic Cooperation.
We will consider organizing a seminar on The Holocaust around The Holocaust Remembrance Day to bring together all researchers in this area together with the relevant civil society organizations. If any gaps in our national remembrance are identified in this seminar, we commit ourselves to address those gaps with public financing.
The guarantee of the rights and equality of every citizen “without distinction as to origin, race or religion” is at the heart of the French Constitution. France remains uncompromising in the face of antisemitism -of which we have endorsed the operational definition set forth by the IHRA-, as well as being actively engaged in the remembrance of the Shoah.
At the domestic level, the French government has strengthened its institutional arsenal through the work of the “Interministerial Delegation to the fight against racism, antisemitism and anti-LGBT hate” (DILCRAH). Among the main priorities of the soon-to-be-adopted “national plan to combat racism and antisemitism” are:
New educational tools for professionals that will strengthen the education and training aimed at helping teachers address the history of the Holocaust. It will also support the effort of publishers and authors of school textbooks to raise awareness against anti-Semitic stereotypes.
Victims of anti-Semitic acts will be more strongly supported thanks to simplified complaint-filing procedures, the training of victim support associations, and a greater awareness among the users of platforms and social networks on a more protective use of these tools.
We will improve the prevention of anti-Semitic acts thanks to research and dissemination of knowledge on racism and anti-Semitism, the development
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of citizenship-training courses and the mobilization of the private sector as well as the economic circles.
We will enhance the crackdown on hate speech online by strengthening the investigative teams of the Interior Ministry’s reporting platform (Pharos), and by enabling the creation of a prosecutor’s office specializing in digital affairs. This repressive arsenal is supplemented by the faculty to dissolve any association or group that promotes antisemitism or Nazism.
At the international level, France is relentless in advocating for the fight against antisemitism and in promoting Holocaust remembrance within UN bodies or the Council of Europe (particularly within the European commission against racism and intolerance – ECRI or the International Holocaust remembrance alliance – IHRA). As part of the French presidency of the European Union, we will consolidate actions at the European level in order to fight the resurgence of antisemitism and Holocaust denial, as well as to pursue the development of the Digital services Act.
Memorial institutions, like the Holocaust Memorial, are very active in terms of education, training, research, and communication to maintain the work on Holocaust remembrance. The French State allocates 6 million euros to financing the interventions of partner associations and places of memory, both at local and national level. January 27, selected as the day of “International Holocaust Remembrance Day” is the opportunity for numerous commemorations, particularly for young people. As part of the many educational projects, the “Convoy 77” project encourages students from different countries to carry out educational work whose purpose is to retrace the lives of those deported last towards the Auschwitz camp by this large convoy.
I. Remembrance of the Holocaust and the genocide of the Sinti and Roma Germany will contribute to making eye-witness accounts accessible to more people everywhere by means of digitising remembrance of the Holocaust and the genocide of the Sinti and Roma, in particular in memorials and museums in Germany and abroad.
Germany will campaign through the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance for the continued existence of the Global Task Force against Holocaust
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Distortion and the implementation of its findings, and calls on all IHRA member countries to become involved in these efforts.
II. Holocaust education
Germany will develop independent funding for Holocaust education from the perspective of survivors and survivor organisations.
Germany will, working through the Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility and Future, advance a novel education agenda on Nazi injustice, imparting lessons from the National Socialist past in a historically aware and energising way.
Germany will strengthen remembrance of the Holocaust and the genocide of the Sinti and Roma by continuing to systematically incorporate the perspective of survivors and their advocacy groups.
Germany will develop innovative approaches to Holocaust education in a post-migrant society.
III. Antisemitism in social networks and on social media platforms
Germany will develop both a network of experts and a federal working group on online hate.
Germany will finance a study on digital news skills as well as scientific studies on right-wing extremism, in particular the links between right-wing extremism and antisemitism.
IV. Combating antisemitism, antigypsyism and racism
Germany will continue to actively combat antisemitism, antigypsyism and racism in all spheres of life and in peoples’ daily interactions.
Germany will further anchor a holistic approach to preventing and combating all forms of antisemitism, antigypsyism and racism as a cross-cutting task across all levels and policy fields and will draw up a national strategy against antisemitism and for Jewish life. Germany will strengthen research into antisemitism, establishing and promoting research networks to this end.
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Germany will further develop prevention and study projects on the connection between right-wing extremism and antisemitism as well as between racism and antisemitism.
Germany will support the development of a civil-society monitoring process to record antisemitic assaults and continue to anchor it in the Competence Network on Antisemitism (KOMPAS), which gathers information on this issue and provides expert advice on preventive educational work on antisemitism.
Germany will establish a civil-society monitoring process to record antigypsyist assaults and, based on the Competence Network on Antisemitism, will develop a similar body on antigypsyism to gather information and provide expert advice.
The promotion of Holocaust remembrance and education as well as efforts to combat antisemitism, antigypsyism and racism are a priority of the German Government at national, European and international level.
In view of the rise in right-wing extremism, racism and antisemitism, a Cabinet Committee for the fight against racism and right-wing extremism was set up in 2020. As well as implementing measures already adopted, the committee has drawn up a catalogue of 89 individual measures. These measures are now being implemented by the relevant lead ministries. The German Government intends to make available a total of more than one billion euro between 2021 and 2024 for the fight against right-wing extremism, racism, antisemitism, antigypsyism and other forms of group hatred. This funding is to be used, among other things, to boost research and prevention, cooperation among security authorities, judicial systems as well as state and civil-society stakeholders and to develop new approaches to fighting the phenomena mentioned. The aims are, inter alia, to create greater awareness of all forms of antisemitism, antigypsyism and racism as a phenomenon which affects society as a whole, strengthen prevention and further develop civic education, promote the work to foster democracy, expand support for those affected, promote recognition of a diverse society and strengthen equal opportunities, as well as bolster vigilant democracy and the security authorities.
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Germany wants, also with the help of newly established bodies such as the Joint Federal and State Commission to fight antisemitism and protect Jewish life founded in 2019, to work at national, European and international level to strengthen the fight against antisemitism, antigypsyism and racism, in particular in the spheres of legislation, basic and further education, public relations work, exchange and remembrance. To this end, we will seek to ensure greater networking among all those affected and stakeholders from civil society, academia and government agencies. The fight against antisemitism, antigypsyism and racism is a cross-cutting task which affects society as a whole. Holocaust remembrance and education are part of this. Given the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and growing technological possibilities, new ways can be found to strengthen and further develop remembrance and education.
Greece’s pledge, in line with the legacy of our Presidency, seeks to bring the Holocaust narrative into the digital era, in a meaningful and efficient manner. In order for the message of the Holocaust to remain relevant forever, it needs, most of all, to adapt to modern circumstances.
Living memory is fading, as survivors and witnesses of the horrors of the Holocaust are leaving us forever. Humanistic studies, including historical studies, unfortunately do not attract young minds as much as they used to. Awareness through education remains essential but may not be sufficient anymore.
For better or worse, information and ideas are now presented, discussed and often fought over in the digital battlefield. This is where the current generation primarily seeks information, explores ideologies and instigates debate. This is also where peddlers of extremist ideas, hate and racism, gain access to large gullible audiences, with unprecedented ease and opportunity to spread views that not only offend the victims of past atrocities, but also threaten democracy and basic human values.
As the current COVID pandemic has regrettably shown, distortion of information is a very real concern and even the most outlandish conspiracy theory claims can still fall to eager ears, often with grave results.
This is where the current threat lies and this is where we intend to take the fight.
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The Greek IHRA Presidency, in collaboration with Greek and foreign State agencies as well as academic institutions and industry agents, is preparing a Congress titled “Combating Anti-Semitism, Holocaust Denial and Distortion and Extremist Resurgences in the Digital Battlefield”.
The Congress is to be held late February – early March of 2022 in the Greek city of Ioannina, home to one of the most ancient Jewish communities in Europe. It will host three round tables:
On Anti-Semitism and other extremist phenomena in Social Media and the Internet.
On the means to detect, counter and suppress such phenomena, using leading edge technologies such as Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Prediction.
On the legal aspects, such as the balance that must be achieved between freedom of speech and the need to defend Democracy against racism and discrimination.
Should the Congress prove successful, we shall seek to incorporate its premise as a constant feature in all future IHRA Presidencies, so that the threat can keep being fought and countered as it develops.
Bringing the Holocaust messages to the digital era, bringing the fight against anti-Semitism, racism, fascism and all forms of hate-speech to the digital battlefield, is the most efficient way to ensure the continued memory and relevance of the Holocaust.
This is our pledge and the legacy of Greece’s IHRA Presidency.
Since the fall of communism – particularly over the last 12 years – Hungary has done its utmost for its Jewish compatriots, and its commitment towards the Jewish community enjoys international recognition. It has carried out a compensation program, has been paying annuities, and has been operating a Public Foundation for Jewish Heritage in Hungary. It makes every effort to combat anti-Semitism and hate speech through comprehensive legislation. A multitude of synagogues and cemeteries have also been renovated with state support and in keeping with Jewish religious customs.
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Today, three established Jewish congregations flourish in Hungary, all of them receiving state support. The Hungarian government remains committed to nurturing Jewish traditions, preserving Jewish culture, and researching and presenting Jewry’s past as well as maintaining and developing its institutions with numerous tools and generous support. And the government will continue to do all of this in the future. To pay tribute to the memory of the Holocaust, a Holocaust Memorial Centre has been operating in Hungary with significant state support. Furthermore, by parliamentary decision, April 16 was declared National Holocaust Memorial Day, when the tragedy of the Jews is commemorated throughout the country, not only by parliament but also by NGOs supported by the government.
In connection with the International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance to be held in Malmö, Hungary will seek to curb the anti-Semitic groups of the BDS movement and prevent them from receiving European Union funds. It will also undertake to fight restrictions and bans on Jewish religious practices and traditions in order to safeguard Jewish freedom. Furthermore, Hungary has adopted and applies the IHRA’s definition of anti-Semitism and undertakes to further accelerate and deepen its implementation. In the framework of cross-border Hungarian-Serbian cooperation, a Holocaust memorial site will be established in the town of Bor in Serbia, while Hungary will continue its program of renovating synagogues and cemeteries.
Thanks to the above measures, the Jewish community may consider Hungary among the safest places in Europe, a place where they can live freely according to their identity and are not threatened by the growing anti-Semitism caused by the waves of migration affecting Europe. We trust that our commitments will further strengthen Jewish communities in Hungary.
We pledge to publish a National Action Plan Against Racism, by 21 March 2022, the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. It will be guided by best practice, as set out in the Practical Guide to Developing National Action Plans Against Racism published by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights and informed by the EU Action Plan Against Racism (2020-25), which itself reflects the UN Guide. The action plan will:
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have regard to the review of evidence, including state responses to UN and European commitments; international practice; the outcome of stakeholder dialogues; and taking account of the Durban Declaration and Programme of Action;
include an action programme, that identifies priority issues, as well as measures that strengthen the Government’s approach to combating racism, building on the actions currently included in the Migrant Integration Strategy, and the National Traveller and Roma Inclusion Strategy, preventing antisemitism and other forms of racism.
We pledge to combat antisemitism, antigypsyism and other forms of racism, online and offline.
We will continue to ensure that discrimination on the grounds of race is prohibited in the provision of goods and services, education and accommodation, and in employment settings. Victims of discrimination will have recourse to redress mechanisms where the discrimination occurs.
We will conclude the review of our Equality Acts to examine the functioning of the Acts and their effectiveness in combatting antisemitism, antigypsyism and other forms of racism, and promoting equality. A public consultation process is currently live and will conclude at the end of November 2021.
We will continue to support the commemoration of Holocaust remembrance in Ireland.
We pledge to take steps to put in place ethnic equality monitoring across our public services, to inform initiatives to address inequalities experienced by minority ethnic groups.
We will deliver an action programme to implement an interdepartmental initiative on Ethnic Equality Monitoring, in line with recommendations contained in the OECD review (2019), and including measures to improve the collection and analysis of data in line with the National Equality Strategies.
We pledge to renew our commitment to respect, celebrate and recognise the normality of diversity in all parts of human life, promote equality and human rights, challenge unfair discrimination and promote the values upon which
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equality is built through supporting intercultural education in primary and post-primary schools.
We will commence the update of the Intercultural Guidelines for primary and post-primary schools, to support the further integration of intercultural education in the curriculum.
We will prepare a report on Traveller Culture and History with examples of teaching and learning to support learning and teaching about Traveller Culture and History in the curriculum in primary and post-primary schools.
We pledge to introduce new hate crime legislation and update the 1989 Prohibition of Incitement to Hatred Act.
The new Hate Crime Bill will introduce new offences of incitement to hatred, which are clearer and simpler than those in the 1989 Prohibition of Incitement to Hatred Act. These offences will cover inciting hatred against a person or persons because they are associated with a protected characteristic, and also disseminating or distributing material inciting hatred. A protected characteristic will be defined to include race; colour; nationality; religion, ethnic or national origin; sexual orientation; gender; or disability. “Ethnicity” includes membership of the Traveller community.
We will create a new offence of publicly condoning, denying or grossly trivialising crimes of genocide, including holocaust denial, based on the definition of genocide from the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
The Hate Crime Bill will create specific, aggravated forms of existing criminal offences, where those offences are motivated by prejudice against a protected characteristic.
The State of Israel is fully committed to promoting Holocaust remembrance and combating antisemitism.
Israel is working alongside governments and non-governmental organizations in creating and expanding partnerships aimed at promoting education programs, monitoring and dealing with the various manifestations of antisemitism.
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In light of the discernible and dangerous increase in antisemitism online, mainly on social-media platforms, Israel pledges to work toward the establishment of an international coalition for combating antisemitism and Holocaust denial and distortion online.
This coalition will work to establish a mechanism that will facilitate the international cooperation in this endeavor.
• In September 2021, the National Coordinator for the fight against Anti-Semitism , with the support of the technical working group composed by Ministries and representatives of Jewish Communities, presented the Report with the National Strategy to combat Antisemitism to the Government and the Parliament: now all Italian Institutions are called to implement its recommendations in a close coordination with the recently adopted EU strategy on combating antisemitism and in line with IHRA Working Definition of Antisemitism.
• It is also on that basis that the Ministry of Education is currently finalising the Guidelines for combating Antisemitism which will be used in schools and in teachers’ training.
In these turbulent times the Forum has served as a reminder of the continued need to strengthen Holocaust research, education and commemoration across Europe.
In Latvia much has been done in the past three decades since regaining independence. Already in 1990, Latvian parliamentarians adopted a declaration on condemning genocide and antisemitism, and the Commemoration Day of Genocide against the Jews – 4 July – was officially established. A Commission of Historians was established in 1998 upon the initiative of the then President of Latvia and its academic research on the Holocaust has resulted in a series of significant publications. Latvia has carried out fundamental research on crimes against humanity committed by totalitarian regi.mes on the territory of Latvia. Memorials to the victims of the Holocaust are marked with monuments and commemorative plaques. The Holocaust has become an integral part of history lessons in all Latvian schools, and in study programmes related to history and culture. Cooperation with Yad Vashem in this field is essential and has been very
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successful. Latvia’s highest officials are directly involved in Holocaust remembrance.
Let me assure you that Latvia will continue to further develop these endeavours, also with my personal participation at the commemoration next month of 80 years since the horrific events on the outskirts of Riga at Rumbula and Bikernieki.
Despite the continuous efforts of the international community, and in particular by IHRA countries, we realize that the tragic lessons of 20th century history have not been adequately understood or acted upon – we continue to witness expressions of Holocaust denial, xenophobia, racism, antisemitism and acts of violence world-wide, as well as attempts to distort the history of the World War II.
We must prevent attempts to rewrite the history in a hybrid warfare aimed at manipulating public opinion.
At the global level, combating disinformation effectively requires even doser understanding and cooperation in international organizations. Earlier this year Latvia was one of the initiators of the UN General Assembly resolution on the promotion of media and information literacy at the global level. We will continue to provide support to partners with our expertise in combating disinformation.
Latvia has consistently condemned all totalitarian ideologies, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed during the World War Il, categorically denounces the Holocaust and mourns its victims. As a member state of the IHRA, Latvia reaffirms its full commitment to the goals of the Stockholm Declaration. The major future objectives in this field embrace the efforts to further raise awareness of the general public concerning the history of the Holocaust as well as the continual promotion of an attitude and practice of zero-tolerance for any signs or expressions of antisemitism and racial discrimination. In this context I would like to inform you that in 2022 the newly renovated Museum of the Occupation of Latvia will host an exhibition entitled “Riga as a Place of Crime and Remembrance – The Deportation and the Holocaust in Latvia”.
The Lithuanian government is engaged in a number of initiatives on Holocaust remembrance and education, which are to be implemented within
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a 5-year perspective. The most significant of them include opening new museum spaces and updating existing school curricula incorporating modern teaching recommendations on the Holocaust. This is an important contribution to raising awareness and educating society not only about the Holocaust but also the ages rich history of Jews in Lithuania. It was extensively presented during the year 2020, which was officially dedicated to the Vilna Gaon and saw a significant increase of interest in Jewish life, history and heritage in Lithuania.
Development of museums and memorials
1. Currently two museums devoted to Lithuanian Jewry are undergoing renovation to be completed in 2023-2024. Both will become branches of the Vilna Gaon Museum of Jewish History which is a state museum under the Lithuanian Ministry of Culture.
• The Memorial Museum of Holocaust in Lithuania and the Vilna Ghetto will be located in the building which housed Meficei Haskala (Education Disseminators) society library before World War II. The library was nationalized during the first Soviet occupation in 1940. After the establishment of the ghetto in 1941, the library found itself enclosed in the ghetto area and functioned there until the liquidation of the ghetto in 1943. The library witnessed cultural activities as well as the activities of the underground armed resistance organization in the Vilna Ghetto. Survivors of the Holocaust (among them writers Shmerke Kaczerginski and Avrom Sutzkever) founded the Jewish Museum there in 1944. It was closed by the Soviet government in 1949. The new Memorial Museum of Holocaust in Lithuania and the Vilna Ghetto will replace the current Holocaust exposition. The museum is expected to be opened at the end of 2024. It is funded by the state budget.
• The Museum of Culture and Identity of Lithuanian Jews is to be opened in 2023 in the building of the former Tarbut Gymnasium in Vilnius. It will be a modern interactive exposition with authentic exhibits on Lithuanian Jewish history and culture. The project is funded by the European Union.
2. Paneriai (Ponar) killing site
An action plan for the re-arrangement and accessibility of the Paneriai (Ponar) Memorial for 2019–2024 was approved by the Government in 2018.
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The plan stipulated that the project should be fully implemented in mid-2024. However, its implementation will be extended due to several reasons, first and foremost, due to the process of choosing a location for the new visitor center.
3. Other killing sites
The central and local governments in cooperation with the Lithuanian Jewish Community continue to re-arrange, maintain and mark the sites of mass killings of Jews by 1) putting up memorial plaques and erecting monuments; 2) putting up directional signs on roads leading to the sites of killings and burial; 3) installing information stands telling the history of the Holocaust. While most of the Holocaust killing sites in Lithuania are marked, the priority for the near future is the identification of the names of the Holocaust victims and their commemoration in Lithuanian towns and villages, which has already started. Currently, information stands with the names of the victims are installed at the killing sites of Jews in five towns.
1. Secondary education
Currently, the Ministry of Education, Science and Sports is reviewing all actual educational curricula for the grades from 1 to 10 adopted in 2008. The review process aimed at the modernization of the educational system should be completed in 2022. In the new curriculum of history, IHRA Recommendations for Teaching and Learning about the Holocaust will play an important role. The Holocaust will be taught in the context of World War II. The contents will be more detailed and developed by introducing a better explanation of specific terms such as ghettos, pogroms, collaboration, antisemitism and so on. It will include the individualization of the Holocaust narrative through personal stories as well as study visits by students to the Holocaust memorial sites. The genocide of the Roma will also become an integral part of the curriculum for the first time. One of the important objectives is to stimulate critical thinking of students and to ensure a more precise understanding of the consequences of antisemitism.
2. Non-formal education
The Secretariat of the International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania plays an
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important role in non-formal Holocaust education. It was on the initiative of the Secretariat that starting from 2003 Tolerance Education Centers were established in 151 schools, local museums and educational centers. Teachers who work at these centers support the International Commission’s initiatives and are active participants in its educational programme about the Holocaust. The Commission together with Tolerance Education Centers, local Jewish communities and other partners have been inviting people to unite on the Memory Road across Lithuania for over a decade now. The participants (most of them schoolchildren and teachers) retrace the paths that the Holocaust victims were forced to walk from central parts of towns and settlements to the sites of their massacre. There are about 260 such killing sites in Lithuania. The Memory Road visits from 100 to 150 sites every year. 200 to 300 schools have joined the campaign, and the total number of participants exceeds 10 000. The Prime Minister, Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Education as well as MPs walked down the Memory Road in 2021, which marks the 80th anniversary of the beginning of the Holocaust in Lithuania and is held in cities and towns across the country from June to December.
Private initiatives A unique private museum of the history of Jewish towns (shtetlakh) has been launched in the town of Šeduva in 2015. The project is funded by private sponsors from Lithuania and the RSA in cooperation with the local municipality. It will tell the story of Jews in Šeduva before the Holocaust, about the traditions, businesses and culture life of all Lithuanian shtetlakh. It will be a state-of-the-art museum designed by US and Finnish architects. The museum is expected to open in 2023. The Lost Shtetl Museum is a segment of a broader project, the Lithuanian Jewish Culture and Heritage Project implemented since 2012. The other segments of the project: restoration of the Old Jewish Cemetery in Šeduva; three monuments on the sites of mass killings; monument in the center of Šeduva; historical monograph about the Šeduva Jews; documentary film “Petrified Time”.
Artistic means of expression to fight against modern forms of antisemitism
To commemorate the Holocaust, one of the most promising composers of the younger generation in Lithuania, Jievaras Jasinskis, and shofarist Tadas Daujotas presented a bespoke music project “Symphony from Jerusalem of the North” this September. This contemporary symphony is unique and one
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of its kind. It showcases classical music intertwined with Lithuanian and Hebrew folklore motifs. The music project honors the memory of Jews living in Lithuania, expresses solidarity to the Jewish community, and uses artistic means of expression to fight against modern forms of antisemitism. The symphony has started its journey across Lithuania, witnessing the most important moments of Israel’s and Lithuania’s history.
With the number of Holocaust survivors diminishing from year to year, thus reducing the precious witness accounts of these horrors, and with antisemitism on the rise again, Governments face the important challenge to perpetuate the remembrance of the Holocaust, to educate younger generations and to vigorously combat antisemitism.
The Luxembourg Government is committed to upholding its responsibilities and continuing to play an active role in addressing these issues in close consultation with the local Jewish Community.
Luxembourg will continue to fully implement the 27th January 2021 Agreement on Outstanding Holocaust Asset Issues in close collaboration with the local Jewish Community and concerned non-state actors. Signed between the Luxembourg Government and the local Jewish Community, this historic agreement, that was commended both nationally and internationally, contains a series of measures which includes but is not limited to a final lump-sum payment to Holocaust survivors, increased financial support for the Foundation for the Memory of the Holocaust, as well as additional funds for Holocaust remembrance and academic research to be realized in the coming years.
In addition to previous and ongoing efforts to remember the Holocaust and its victims, and keeping in mind the vanishing nature of monuments, Luxembourg is further set on establishing a living place of remembrance and education to guarantee that future generations learn about the Holocaust and its causes.
As part of the above-mentioned agreement, Luxembourg acquired and is currently developing the site of the “Abbaye de Cinqfontaines“ which holds a unique place in our national history for being the only place of internment for Jews operated by the Nazis in Luxembourg during World War II and from where 658 Jewish men, women, and children, were deported to concentration and extermination camps.
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The aim is to create a continuity from a place of remembrance to a place of education in tolerance and respect for Human Rights that shall prevent the roots of evil to corrode society again.
The memorial site will thus be enhanced to not only honour the fate of those whose lives took a dramatic turn in this particular place, but also to educate all generations on the history of Holocaust and provide them with tools in identifying and fighting antisemitism and racism.
In line with the EU Strategy on Combating Antisemitism and Fostering Jewish life, presented on the 5th October 2021, Luxembourg will finalize its National Strategy on Combatting Antisemitism in the next months.
The efforts undertaken by my country in building a cohesive and inclusive society based on the respect for human rights, includes both implementation of concrete actions or projects in combating antisemitism and work on complex and long-term issues such as developing an appropriate legal framework in compliance with the international standards and practices.
In this regard, here are the pledges that Moldova assumed in its efforts on combating anti-Semitism, Holocaust remembrance, education and research:
1. Acknowledging the importance of preserving the memory of Holocaust and at the same time giving due recognition to the contribution of the Jewish people on the development of our societies through history, we continue our work on establishing the fully fledged Jewish History Museum of the Republic of Moldova.
2. Continue developing the framework for education to prevent intolerance and anti-Semitism in general education system and of the teaching resources (digitization) to expand the scope of the optional subject “Holocaust: history and life lessons”. Education proved to be one of the most efficient instruments in promoting the Holocaust remembrance, and we continue our work on developing programs, methodological regulation and adapting teaching aids on anti-Semitism education.
3. Deepening and consolidating the knowledge about the phenomenon of the Holocaust and introducing this knowledge in education and public policies.
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4. Adjusting the national legislation to the international standards on combating anti-Semitism, racism, xenophobia and intolerance.
5. Facilitating expert research for the purpose of identifying and mapping sites and localities from where Roma were deported to concentration camps for mass execution during World War II with purpose of increasing the visibility and investigation of the Roma community as victims of the Holocaust.
Considering the growing demand for engagement in the field of human rights, the Government of Republic of Moldova will continue its efforts for implementing the international commitments on combating antisemitism, racial discrimination and intolerance. We are determined to stand undeniably against all forms of hatred and discrimination on any ground.
25. Monaco Monaco is a cosmopolitan country that guarantees all human rights, among which freedom of worship. The Monegasque population is extremely diverse and the city-state offers a safe environment for people of all religious backgrounds to practice their faith. There are extremely few cases of hate speech or acts of racist or anti-Semitic nature.
Monaco pledges to include the transmission of the memory of the Holocaust in its cultural and educational programs Education is an essential tool to address anti-Semitism. Monaco will emphasize the inclusion of the History of the Shoah in the school curricula and raise awareness among schoolchildren about genocides and mass crimes. Monaco will develop educational programs that address antisemitism in a framework of human rights and global citizenship. The Principality will encourage students to participate in the commemorations of the International Holocaust Remembrance Day (January 27th). In addition, school trips will be organized regularly to former concentration camps.
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Monaco will also make sure that more Holocaust remembrance is included in its cultural and theater programming in order to raise awareness among a wider audience.
Monaco pledges to perpetuate the memory of the deportees Following on the creation, in 2015, of a monument in homage to the Jewish deportees, Monaco wishes to perpetuate the memory of people of Jewish faith arrested in Monaco and deported. Soon, a conference room of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco will be named after the former Consul of Poland in Monaco, Mr. Mieczyslaw OXNER. He was an eminent expert in marine biology who refused to cooperate with the Germans. Mr. OXNER was arrested on September 1st, 1944 and sent to the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp, where he died soon after.
Monaco pledges to perpetuate the financial support provided for the activities of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation On several occasions, Monaco has allocated a funding to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation. As of 2022, the Principality will dedicate an annual contribution to support the work of this Foundation.
The Government of Monaco commits to transparency by opening its archives for research purposes In March 2020, the Government of Monaco allowed access to the archives covering the period 1942–1944 to several experts of the Simon Wiesenthal Center. The Principality shall continue to foster transparency by allowing access to historical documentation for research purposes.
Monaco pledges to promote the restitution of Jewish property looted during the Second World War and the compensation of victims or their heirs The Government of Monaco is determined to continue the task of resolving claims and compensating victims, or their heirs, who lost possession of
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property in Monaco during the Second World War. The Commission for Assistance to Victims of Despoliation has been active since 2006.
26. North Macedonia
On behalf of the Republic of North Macedonia, I would like to present 3 pledges that are going to be implemented by the country in the upcoming period:
As part of the reform of the curricula for primary education, the Republic of North Macedonia, in the next two years, will include teaching content that will address Antisemitism and Holocaust denial for students in the final grades. The Ministry of Education and Science is already working on the procedure for supplementing the teaching contents. It is our great responsibility and duty to preserve the memories of the Holocaust and to pass them on to the next generation.
Within the calendar for mandatory visits of primary and secondary school students, we will include a mandatory educational visit to the Holocaust Memorial Center for the Jews from Macedonia in Skopje. The Center is dedicated to 7148 Jews from Macedonia during the Holocaust and is located in a former Jewish quarter. The museum building displays the life of the Jews, their identity, spirituality and culture, which the Museum conveys to visitors and thus maintains the spirit of the place, its uniqueness and recognition, and at the same time, is a symbolic place that points to the horror of the Holocaust. Visiting this Memorial Center by students, will contribute to building a healthy society in which cultural, racial and other diversity will be the basis for unity, not division.
The third commitment refers to the adoption of the IHRA working definition on antigypsyism/anti-Roma discrimination, by the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia. Modern societies must not allow denial of the genocide against Roma and Sinti during the Second World War. Their suffering, losses and traumas should be a warning to us to pledge that this terrible period of history will never happen again elsewhere in the world. We as societies, should have institutional policies and practices for Roma inclusion and prevent any further marginalization, exclusion, physical violence, devaluation of Roma cultures and lifestyles, and hate speech directed at Roma, as well as other individuals and groups. It is the responsibility of today’s generations to create open societies in which every
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individual, regardless of gender, age, ethnicity, religion or skin color, has the right to a dignified life.
1) Norway will develop relevant education and aim at reaching out to new groups.
Key in our efforts is the Dembra program for schools: a program for the prevention of racism, group-based hostility and antidemocratic attitudes, lead by the Norwegian Center for Holocaust and Minority Studies.
Dembra offers schools guidance, courses and online resources to prevent various forms of group hostility and undemocratic attitudes. Competence development is about building democratic competence. Inclusion, participation, critical thinking, and diversity competence are central to the offer. Thus, Dembra is also relevant for, and has overlapping themes with, competence development in a safe and good school environment. The basic principles of Dembra are based on the idea that students develop their identity, their attitudes, and their behavior in interaction with others. Democratic preparedness is built through knowledge and reflection, but not least through social experiences, experiences of equal interaction and dissent. Therefore, the development of a democratic and inclusive school culture is essential.
With full implementation from 2021, between 30 and 40 schools will participate annually. This involves courses and follow-up of between 800 and 1500 teachers per year.
2) Countering contemporary antisemitism and other forms of racism online and offline.
In the spring of 2021, The Norwegian Centre against Racism carried out a pilot which monitored antisemitism online – limited to Facebook and Twitter. Later in 2021 and in 2022 the Centre aims at extending the project to additional platforms, which will give a unique picture of the extent of antisemitic statements on social media and how these are followed-up by big tech. Some years ago, the Norwegian Center for Holocaust and Minority Studies presented a media analysis on antisemitism.
Together, these reports will help us understand the extent of antisemitism on- and offline
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and be a basis for developing policies within the framework of freedom of speech.
3) Promoting remembrance and fighting distortion.
In 2022, Norway will, through the Norwegian Center for Holocaust and Minority Studies, launch a new population survey on attitudes towards Jews and other minorities in Norway. The survey has been carried out every few years since 2013 and is initiated by the Norwegian government.
The Day of the Commemoration of the Victims of the Holocaust is marked in several Norwegian cities, including Oslo. Knowledge can help to break down prejudices. There are several Norwegian institutions that provide knowledge about Judaism and Jewish cultural life and history in Norway. The Jewish museums in Oslo and Trondheim, the Falstad Centre and the Norwegian Center for Holocaust and Minority Studies convey such knowledge to a wider audience. The Norwegian Center for Holocaust and Minority Studies has in 2021 extended its exhibition area substantially, which gives a potential for even more activities in the years to come. The Jewish communities in Trondheim and Oslo play an important role in disseminating knowledge. With the support of the Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation the Jewish Pathfinders Program was established some years back and will be continued in the years to come. The Pathfinders Program involves visits by two young Jews to upper secondary schools
The Norwegian Government has decided to continue a grant scheme for school trips to former concentration camps and World War II for the coming years.
Details on the Norwegian commitments to following up the Malmö Forum are to be found in the Norwegian Government’s Action Plan against antisemitism 2021–2023.
Poland consistently continues and intensifies actions aimed at:
• commemorating, strengthening academic research and promoting education about the Holocaust;
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• continuing support of Jewish life in contemporary Poland, supporting the revival of Jewish culture and preserving the Jewish Heritage in Poland;
• combating antisemitism and other forms of discrimination and racism;
• strengthening the academic research on the extermination of Roma and Sinti as a vital part to preserve the memory of the Second World War and the German occupation of Poland.
The Republic of Poland has a vital role on fighting and combating antisemitism due to the fact that within the present borders of our country there is the key material evidence on Genocide against European Jews, on the grounds of former German concentration and death camps and other mass killing sites. The most important actors in that regard are state and local museums: Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial, the State Museum at Majdanek together with Museum and Memorial in Sobibór and Museum and Memorial Site in Bełżec, Museum of the Former German Kulmhof Death Camp in Chełmno on Ner, the Stutthof Museum in Sztutowo and others, all financed mainly from the Polish state budget and local authorities supported in this respect by the government. From year to year we are observing the significant rise in the number of projects, more and more sites of key historical significance to the Holocaust, and repression of Poles, Sinti and Roma, Soviet war prisoners and victims of other nationalities and groups are being protected and preserved. In the upcoming years, we pledge in particular to implement the following projects:
Actions aimed at expanding a new cultural institution “Treblinka Museum. The Nazi German Extermination and Forced Labour Camp 1941-1944” with a total value of EUR 5,500,000. The project completion date: 2025;
Establishment of a cultural institution “Kraków Museum and Memorial Site. The Nazi German Extermination and Forced Labour Camp 1942-1945 “. Total value of the project: EUR 11,000,000. The project completion date: 2025;
Actions aimed at building new facilities: Visitors Service Center and a new permanent exhibition at the Auschwitz Memorial, with a scheduled completion date in 2028;
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The construction of the Warsaw Ghetto Museum in Warsaw, which is scheduled in 2025.
The Republic of Poland, in accordance with the spirit of Stockholm Declaration of 2000 and the joint ministerial statement of IHRA Member States, issued on January 19, 2020 in Brussels, will continue its actions aimed at honoring all those who resisted the Third Reich, especially the Righteous among the Nations, and others who protected or sought to rescue those who were in danger. It is our duty to keep alive the memory of crimes committed during World War II by German Nazis and its collaborators. The legacy of Holocaust and suffering of Victims as well as heroism of those who sought to rescue must not expire over time. It is our duty to pass remembrance about this tragedy to future generations, this is how we can avoid in the future what has already happened in the past.
1. Developing education for the future to prevent anti-Semitism and other forms of intolerance, discrimination and racism – to launch and implement a training program for civil servants and other public officials on Human Rights and the Holocaust, with the goal of preventing and combating anti-Semitism and all other forms of intolerance, discrimination and racism;
2. Developing education for the future to prevent anti-Semitism and other forms of intolerance, discrimination and racism – translate into Portuguese and disseminate widely the IHRA “Recommendations for Recognizing and Countering Holocaust Distortion”, which will be used for education and capacity building initiatives in Portugal and to mobilize support by other Portuguese speaking countries and actors;
3. Preserve testimonies, promote remembrance, fight distortion and strengthen research on the Holocaust – create the annual municipal prize “Aristides de Sousa Mendes” to award those local authorities which best promoted universal values, humanism and justice and preserved the remembrance and lessons of the Holocaust.
We reunited, in Malmö, 21 years after the adoption of the Declaration of the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust, which is the founding
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document of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance – IHRA and one year since the adoption of the 2020 IHRA Ministerial Declaration.
This was the perfect occasion to take stock of our successes and failures, to draw lessons learned over the past two decades and to reiterate our commitment to upholding Holocaust education, research and remembrance, as well as to preventing and combating antisemitism, by presenting new national pledges.
Against this background, we pledge to:
Continue to encourage the use of IHRA’s non-legally binding working definition of Antisemitism, both in Romania and on the international arena;
Review, update and strengthen Holocaust education for Romanian pupils;
Review, update and strengthen the training programs for professors, teachers and instructors teaching about the Holocaust;
Increase the number of Romanian pupils participating at the Marches of the Living;
Inaugurate the recently established National Museum of Jewish History and of the Holocaust in Romania;
Work diligently with the Romanian universities in order to expand the number of bachelor, Master and PhD degree programs dedicated to the study and research of the Holocaust, as well as to combatting antisemitism, xenophobia, radicalization and hate speech;
Promote the adoption of Codes of Conduct on Preventing and Combatting Antisemitism by Romanian universities, academic and cultural institutions;
Develop dedicated training programs for managers of cultural institutions, such as museums and theaters, in order to prevent antisemitism and Holocaust denial and distortion and to encourage the fight against racism throughout the cultural expressions;
Support the Federation of the Jewish Communities of Romania, in developing programs for the preservation of Jewish heritage;
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Improve data collection regarding anti-Semitic incidents that do not reach the threshold envisaged in the current administrative regulations and criminal code;
Establish a national annual award for Romanian and international personalities that will contribute to Holocaust education, research and remembrance, as well as to preventing and combatting antisemitism;
Continue to engage with our international likeminded partners in order to promote Holocaust education, research and remembrance at the international level, and to develop international instruments for fighting against antisemitism.
The pandemic that continues to affect our lives has facilitated the proliferation, especially online, of conspiracy theories and anti-Semitic speech. This is unacceptable, and today we reiterate our strong resolve to decisively act against these phenomena, both online and offline.
The Constitution of Rwanda of 2003 revised in 2015 indicates the Commitment of the Government of Rwanda to preventing and punishing the crime of genocide, fighting genocide negationism and revisionism, eradicating genocide ideology and all its manifestations, divisionism and discrimination based on ethnicity, region or any other ground. In the same line, the Government of Rwanda will strengthen existing efforts to fight against the impunity of the perpetrators of all Genocide recognized by the international community.
The Government of Rwanda will collaborate with other stakeholders to join the effort to eradicate Holocaust denial and denial of genocide recognized by the international community as indicated in the NST1 on the priority area 4 related to Strengthening justice, law and order under Transformation Governance Pillar2.
To overcome the challenge related to the persistence of genocide ideology despite legal enforcement towards preventing and punishing the crime of genocide ideology.3 The Government of Rwanda will continue to ensure the implementation of law no 59/2018 of 22/08/2019 on the crime of genocide
2 7 years Government Programme: National Strategy for Transformation (NST1) 2017-2024, Page 37
3 Justice, Reconciliation, Law & Order Sector Strategic Plan 2018/19-2023/24, Page 12p
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ideology and related on the ideology of genocide that punishes the denial of any internationally recognized genocide on the Rwandan territory.
Kigali Genocide Memorial is an important place of remembrance and learning about the Genocide against the Tutsi. It proposed educational programme on other genocides and atrocities through exhibitions. Kigali Genocide Memorial will continue to display a Holocaust exhibit for the visitors.
Rwandan schools will continue to teach the Holocaust to help students understanding the historical events of the Holocaust.
The Government of Rwanda will continue its efforts of transmitting memory through the exchange of experience and archives with the Paris Shoah Memorial aiming to promote research on the Holocaust and the Genocide against the Tutsi.
As started with the Government of Sweden4, the Government of Rwanda will continue to advocate for the adoption of a law by all States to punish on their territory the denial of any genocide recognized by the international community.
We, the Republic of Serbia, pledge to preserve the Memory of the Holocaust
Holocaust Memorial at the city of Bor, one of the largest forced labor camps in Europe during the Second World War, will be established during 2022. The Memorial center is envisaged as an interactive venue where educational and research project would be carried out, engaging wider society, especially children and young adults. The Memorial center would, at the same time, encourage cultural and educational exchange with relevant international partners, institutions and experts in the field of the Holocaust. Within the Center, the Park of friendship between Serbia and Hungary will be established in the memory of many prominent Hungarian Jews who died working in the inhumane conditions of the labor camp. We commit to invest a sum exceeding 500.000 EUR into this project, together with Hungary.
4 Letter to Swedish Parliament requesting to initiate a law on genocide denial and a letter to the Swedish Minister of Justice on genocide denial law.
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We pledge to further honor the victims of the Holocaust
The reconstruction of the Jewish cemetery in the city of Bor will be carried out in 2022 and all the locations of suffering will be mapped and marked. Furthermore, all locations along the “March of death” to which most of the labor camps workers were forced to, on their way to concentration camps in Germany, will be marked as well. Throughout 2022, reconstruction works will be conducted at the central remembrance site in Serbia -Staro Sajmiste, Belgrade. This location will be allotted partially to the Museum of the Genocide victims and for the permanent Memorial center “Staro sajmiste”.
We pledge to further promote education on the Holocaust
Education for children and young adults, as well as teachers and others in the formal and informal educational system, to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism, will be carried out through an extensive and interactive program in schools and other institutions. Furthermore, literature festival dedicated to the memory of the Holocaust will be inaugurated in 2022, initially on the national level and, in later stages, international level.
We pledge to continue supporting the Jewish community in the Republic of Serbia
Being the first country in Europe to adopt the Holocaust Property Restitution Bill in 2016, we pledge to continue the restitution of all property belonging to the victims of the Holocaust without legal heirs, by compensating Jewish community with 950.000 EUR each year, until 2041.
Slovakia pledges to preserve and pass on the remembrance of the Holocaust
Holocaust Museum of the Slovak National Museum – Museum of Jewish Culture was opened in the town of Sereď in 2016. The Museum is located on the grounds of a former labour and concentration camp from the Second World War. The aim is to complete the construction of the entire area of the Holocaust Museum and to create a memorial for Holocaust victims on the grounds of the former appelplatz, which will be a dignified commemorative place appropriate to remember the Holocaust tragedy and to pay tribute to its victims.
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Slovakia pledges to promote education on Holocaust, education to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism and to strengthen Holocaust research
The use of the IHRA working definition of antisemitism will be supported as a part of further education of judges, prosecutors, attorneys, police officers and other legal professions. The use of IHRA working definition of antigypsyism/anti-Roma racism will be supported.
The use of the existing educational materials on the history of the Roma and about the Roma genocide during World War II will be intensified with the aim to extend the knowledge of pupils and students. Once the IHRA recommendations for teaching and learning about the Roma genocide, currently under preparation, are adopted, they will be actively used in the preparation of educational processes.
The IHRA document Recognizing and Countering Holocaust Distortion Recommendations will be translated into Slovak and awareness of it will be raised among educational institutions, Slovak universities, institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and institutions raising future teachers and policy-makers and among drafters of teaching materials. The document will be disclosed on dissemination portals focused on lifelong learning.
A creation of the Slovak national node of the European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) and a prospective membership of the Slovak Republic in the permanent organisation of EHRI will be carefully considered.
Events for teachers and drafters of educational materials related to promotion and use of the IHRA Recommendations for teaching and learning about the Holocaust will be organised. Targeted measures to raise awareness of the young generation about the Holocaust and the risk of its distortion will be implemented.
To preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust
Slovenia will continue with the annual project every January to commemorate the International Holocaust Day by many events throughout the country that are coordinated by the Sinagogue Maribor under the umbrella name “Shoah – We remember”. Until the COVID-19 pandemic these events in state premises, museums, schools, galleries, cultural
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institutions were physical, but since 2021 (more than 70 events) also in virtual form, which multiplied the public attendance. In the future these events will probably be in a hybrid form, targeting the young generation, survivors and their families and friends as well as public at large.
The yearly traditional Festival of Tolerance, a one week event, which builds awareness with international movies, theatre performances, exhibitions, lectures, new book presentations on the topics of Holocaust and different kinds of intolerance, as well as educational mornings for the young and lively debates of intellectuals, will continue in the years to come.
The ”Stoplersteine” project of remembering the victims of national-socialism and fascism, who have lived in Slovenia, before they were forcefully transported to concentration and extermination camps, will continue.
To promote education on Holocaust
The education of teachers to promote Holocaust education within the school curricula will continue in cooperation with Yad Vashem (currently it is underway virtually) and within other international projects like Memorial de la Shoah (group seminars organised for Slovenian, Italian and Croatian teachers).
A Yad Vashem Exhibition on the Holocaust, which has been recently translated into the Slovenian language, will be made available in the next period to schools and possibly also for public at large. Teachers have just received training about the methodology how to promote this exhibition.
Slovenia has translated among the first all the working definitions of IHRA (Antisemitism, Holocaust Denial and Distortion, Antigypsism) as well as “Educational Guidelines on Teaching ad Learning about the Holocaust” which are available on the internet. Slovenia expects the ”EU Handbook for the practical use of the IHRA definition of antisemitism” to be translated into the Slovene language in due time. Currently the translation of “Recommendations for Policy and Decision Makers on Recognizing and Countering Holocaust Distortion” is underway into the Slovene language.
To continue Holocaust research
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Yearly academic symposiums at the Sinagogue Maribor “Each Year One Name” will be continued as well as occasional publications about the history of “Jews in Slovenia: History and Holocaust” and about “Porajmos-The Roma Genocide”.
Spain is in many respects a leading country regarding Holocaust remembrance and combating anti-Semitism. Our efforts over the last few years have been effective in both areas.
Nevertheless, we support the Swedish presidency of the IHRA in the idea that new grounds can always be found in order to enhance and improve social sensitivity and public commitment to preventing anti-Semitism and to fostering remembrance of the Shoa.
Therefore, the Spanish government wishes to present three pledges which can be developed in the next few years:
1. Disseminate and explain the working definition of anti-Semitism, as defined by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance
After Spain endorsed the definition on July 22nd 2020, we commit to continue our work so that the definition is known and its usefulness is properly understood by all public institutions, as well as by different entities of civil society in the political, social, cultural, educational, and sports fields. We will thus reaffirm Spain’s commitment to fighting anti-Semitism.
2. Work with Spanish municipalities in order to encourage tolerance and the understanding of cultural and religious diversity, by implementing public policies focused on dealing with pluralism
“Municipalities for tolerance” is a project sponsored by the public foundation “Pluralismo y Convicencia” and the Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces. It intends to promote respect and awareness of the diversity present in Spanish society, as well as to prevent any form of hatred. The project includes specific actions aiming to raise awareness of our historical Jewish heritage and its presence in our cities today.
3. Enlarge the network of teachers who receive training in anti-Semitism and Remembrance of the Holocaust
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“Centro Sefarad-Israel”, a public diplomacy institution linked to the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation will strengthen and enlarge its training programmes for teachers, in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and with the Autonomous Communities.
These pledges will be implemented by public Spanish institutions, such as the Spanish delegation to IHRA, different Ministries, the Centro Sefarad-Israel and the Foundation “Pluralismo y Convivencia”. Support will be also requested from regional and local authorities, as well as from agents of the civil society, universities in particular, with which cooperation has already begun.
Sweden will assume the Presidency of the IHRA from March 2022 to the end of February 2023. This was Sweden’s first pledge in connection with the Malmö Forum. Pledges presented at the Malmö Forum will be followed up during the Swedish Presidency. The ambition of the Swedish Government is to implement the measures below and allocate a total amount of approximately EUR 9.3 million/year.
We pledge to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust
• A museum to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust will be established in Sweden in 2022. The activities of the museum will be built up and formed over the years to come. One starting point is that stories of Holocaust survivors with a connection to Sweden will be at the core of the museum’s activities. A Swedish-language version of the Dimensions in Testimony installation (developed by the Shoah Foundation) that allows visitors to interact with Holocaust survivors via pre-recorded answers to questions – using artificial intelligence technology – will be spread by the museum to schools and other museums all over the country.
• The Swedish Government will make a contribution of 5,5 million kronor to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Foundation, so that this place is preserved and new generations can build a future from learning, reflecting and remembering the terrible past.
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We pledge to promote education to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism and to strengthen Holocaust research
• Education for active citizenship to prevent antisemitism and other forms of racism will be promoted through a nationwide undertaking conducted by the Swedish National Agency for Education in cooperation with the Living History Forum. It will focus on a wide range of target groups encompassing formal and non-formal education.
• Activities, based on the recommendations of the Swedish Research Council’s survey of Swedish research on the Holocaust and antisemitism, including groups such as the Roma and antigypsyism, will be initiated during 2022, with funding allocated by the Swedish Research Council.
We pledge to combat antisemitism, antigypsyism and other forms of racism – online and offline
• An action programme with measures against antisemitism will be presented in 2022. Action programmes targeting antigypsyism, islamophobia, Afrophobia and racism against the Sami will also be presented. The IHRA working definitions of antisemitism and antigypsyism/Roma discrimination will be considered in these respective programmes. The programmes will e.g. include measures in the field of education, continued and enhanced efforts by the police to counter racism and hate crime, as well as an assignment to the Swedish Defence Research Agency to continuously monitor antisemitism and other forms of racism, hate speech and violent extremism in digital environments.
• Organised racism and support for organised racism will be criminalised. The Government will also consult the Parliament and appoint a parliamentary committee of inquiry to unbiasedly consider whether Holocaust denial should be more clearly criminalised.
We pledge to promote Jewish life, strengthen Roma inclusion and enhance security for civil society
• A government inquiry on a strategy to promote Jewish life in Sweden will be appointed. The National strategy for Roma inclusion will continue and permanent resources will be allocated from 2022. Language centres for Yiddish and Romani will be established.
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• Funding for security-enhancing measures for civil society, including the Jewish community, will increase significantly from 2022.
Switzerland has always made a strong connection between dealing with the past and prevention of atrocities. While we are very active in dealing with the past and memorialisation, we also have the responsibility to create conditions to prevent violence, end the commission of atrocities and promote conditions for a peaceful world.
In this context, Switzerland is pleased to announce the following pledges – from now on and beyond 2022:
Switzerland will work on the development of a memorial for the victims of National Socialism.
Switzerland will continue the development of educational material about the Holocaust, with a special focus on victims who have not been considered much until now – like the Roma/Sinti.
Switzerland will be actively involved in the organization of the annual Holocaust commemorations on 27 January and 2 August.
Switzerland will continue its active engagement within the IHRA.
Switzerland will continue to take on an active role in making prevention a reality through the global initiative for atrocity prevention GAAMAC, where during its fourth international meeting in November, IHRA will offer a workshop on strengthening national efforts to address hate speech, discrimination and prevent incitement. A highly relevant topic to this day!
38. The Czech Republic
• The Czech Republic is committed to preventing and combating antisemitism both offline and online. The Czech Republic will prepare the Czech National Strategy for Combating Antisemitism. The intention is to create a working platform among the respective state institutions and the Federation of Jewish Communities for long-term cooperation on combating antisemitism. The Strategy aims mainly at shortening the time between the appearance of antisemitic texts online, their removal and the official punishment.
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• The Czech Republic will establish a state subsidized institution called Memorial of Silence. The institution will commemorate the victims of the Holocaust and will serve as a Holocaust education center for people of all ages. As a state institution, it will also have the ambition to join all other Holocaust memory institutions in the Czech Republic. The institution will also focus on the comparison of the past experiences with current signs of xenophobia and antisemitism.
• The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic will organize an International Ministerial Conference as a part of the Czech Presidency of the Council of the EU in the second half of 2022. The conference will be organized as a follow up to the Terezín Declaration endorsed by 47 countries. The main goal of the conference will be to support educational and remembrance programs for young people, to review progress in rectifying injustices from the time of the Holocaust, and encourage the creation of strategies and funds for combating antisemitism, xenophobia and hate.
39. The Netherlands
Thanks to the unwavering efforts of the chairman of the Dutch Auschwitz Committee, Mr. Jacques Grishaver, the Holocaust Memorial of Names was unveiled last month. In the very heart of Amsterdam, a brick labyrinth slowly took form, bearing the names and ages of all 102,163 Dutch Jews, Roma and Sinti murdered by the Nazis during World War II. Each brick is inscribed by a single name.
According to Mr. Grishaver commemoration is more than honouring the dead. It also leads us to account for the actions of the past, and sustains us in the fight against the poison of antisemitism.
The Dutch government has developed four initiatives to support this fight. This year, we appointed a National Coordinator for Countering Antisemitism (NCAB) whose role is to offer advice, both solicited and unsolicited, on tackling intimidation, discrimination and threats against the Jewish community.
Secondly, the Netherlands is pleased to announce that we wish to host the headquarters of the European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) in the Netherlands and contribute financially to the establishment of the EHRI.
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The task of the EHRI is to safeguard continuing international research into commemoration of and education about the holocaust.
Thirdly, in line with the European framework decision on racism, the Netherlands aims to cover specific forms of hate speech – such as public denial of genocide – explicitly in an existing criminal provision. Denying the evil that was committed is nothing short of a new assault.
The fourth and final initiative involves additional efforts aimed at raising awareness of the Holocaust and broadening understanding of the Jewish culture, among schoolchildren.
Some of the bricks that make up the new Memorial of Names are now marked by small stones. According to this Jewish custom, the descendants of the deceased show that their thoughts are still with their lost loved ones.
Let all of us try in our lives to symbolically leave behind our own stone of remembrance every day. By honouring the dead, by remembering the horrors, and by pledging our relentless commitment to the fight against today’s antisemitism.
On Holocaust Remembrance;
We are determined to continue our efforts for commemorating and reminding the public of the victims of the Holocaust, in observance of the “never again” motto.
The visibility is closely related to awareness. Therefore, we are resolved to continue organizing high-profile ceremonies and public events held in memory of the victims on 27 January and 24 February every year -the occasions of the International Holocaust Remembrance Day and the Struma Incident- engaging a wider audience in the Turkish public.
The “Weremember” website, launched by the Directorate of Communications of the Presidency on 27 January 2021, is a testimony to our determination in this regard.
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On Holocaust Education;
We are engaged to better educating the younger generations about the Holocaust, the most vicious crime against humanity which gave its meaning to the term genocide, not only through the present curriculum but also scholarly research and the power of social media platforms.
The “IHRA Recommendations for Teaching and Learning About the Holocaust,” published on the afore-mentioned website “Weremember,” is a noteworthy step towards this direction.
We will also encourage extensive scholarly work on the Holocaust through the Institute on Genocide Studies to be established in Istanbul University.
On Antisemitism on social media platforms;
We will continue raising awareness against Antisemitism in social media.
One of our priorities will be to facilitate public access to the Turkish translation of the “UNESCO/OSCE Guidelines on Addressing Antisemitism Through Education” on suitable channels.
On combating Antisemitism and other forms of racism in all spheres of life;
We are committed to promoting academic work on the intersecting lines between Antisemitism and other forms of racism and discrimination, including the Islamophobia.
We will also continue to support civil society initiatives to combat Antisemitism, Islamophobia, racism and discrimination.
Next year, we will mark the 530th Anniversary of the welcoming by the Ottoman Empire of the Jewish people fleeing from the Inquisition and persecution. We aim to promote and organize activities both at home and abroad to remember this event and draw lessons from the history of Antisemitism.
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1. Preserving the memory of the Holocaust victims:
Preservation of historical memory is an important component of Ukraine’s humanitarian policy. The issue of historical justice is very acute. We are responsible to all past and all future generations for historical justice. That is especially crucial to preserve and pass on to future generations the memory of the tragedy in Babyn Yar and to convey to the world community the truthful information about this mourning symbol of Holocaust on the Ukrainian soil, as there are almost no survivors of this human drama nowadays.
a. Therefore, the National Historical Memorial Preserve Babyn Yar or the Ukrainian Holocaust Museum will be created on the base of the complex of historical monuments on the place of mass extermination of civilians and prisoners of war in the Babyn Yar ravine during the Nazi occupation. It is our duty to make Babyn Yar a place of memory, not a place of oblivion. As a state, we strive to make this place worthy of the memory of more than 100,000 Holocaust victims.
b. We also pledge to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust by ensuring that the permanent exhibition of the National History Museum of Ukraine properly represents and reflects the rich history of Ukrainian Jews, their centuries-long input into cultural, economic, social and political development of Ukraine. We will enhance substantially cooperation between Ukraine’s local history museums, museums of Ukrainian Jews and museums of Holocaust through organization of joint exhibition projects, online public lectures and virtual exhibitions to ensure better education of the Ukrainian citizens on the subject of Holocaust and history of the Ukrainian Jews.
2. Support for research on the Holocaust and reflection of this issue in educational and academic programs of Ukraine:
Ukraine pledges to enhance knowledge about the Holocaust by elaborating of the National educational program to spread awareness about the Holocaust, ensuring proper representation of this subject in school textbooks, academic programs and research institutions. To this end, the Government of Ukraine will provide the state funding under existing undergraduate and graduate Jewish Studies programs in Ukraine, namely those at the Ukrainian Catholic University (Lviv) and National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
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3. Combating antisemitism, racism, xenophobia and discrimination in Ukrainian society:
To develop a strategy for promoting and protecting the Jewish life in Ukraine by conducting a National information campaign on the historical lessons of genocides of the XX century in the context of combatting xenophobia and antisemitism and appointing liaison officers/national focal points for an operative interaction with the local Jewish communities in relevant law enforcement bodies.
42. United Kingdom
Today we must confront the reality that around the world antisemitism is on the rise. We cannot remain silent. Antisemitism has absolutely no place in our society, which is why we are taking a strong lead in tackling it in all its forms whether it be in our universities, schools or in our communities. When we see swastikas daubed on walls of synagogues and hear vile verbal abuse, we must not be silent. That is why we pledge to keep up the fight against Antisemitism.
To mark the 21st anniversary of the Stockholm Declaration the United Kingdom Government pledges to:
UK Holocaust Memorial and Learning Centre
• build and open a new national Holocaust Memorial and Learning Centre to honour the six million Jewish men, women and children who were murdered during the Holocaust and all other victims of Nazi persecution by January 2025.
• ensure that the learning centre focuses on subsequent genocides, and provides a balanced narrative, addressing the complexities of Britain’s responses to the Holocaust, avoiding simplistic judgements and encouraging visitors to critically reflect on this pivotal period of history
• continue supporting the annual Holocaust Memorial Day Ceremony on 27 January, alongside local ceremonies across the length and breadth of the United Kingdom
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• continue to encourage higher education providers to adopt the IHRA definition of antisemitism
• continue to ensure that teacher training supports teachers to understand equality issues and subject knowledge, including through the Initial Teacher Training Teachers’ Standards and providers’ own legal duties on equality.
• bring forward the government’s proposals for a new regulatory framework that will usher in a new age of accountability for technology companies. The draft Online Safety Bill, published in May 2021, will give rise to the regulatory framework which will place a duty of care on platforms, requiring them to tackle illegal and legal but harmful abuse online, including antisemitic abuse. The regime will be overseen by an independent regulator who will have powers to issue large fines of up to 10% of annual turnover or £18 million, whichever is higher.
UK Holocaust Sites Map
• jointly fund with the Association of Jewish Refugees the development of a new digital resource to map sites and documents relevant to the Holocaust and Nazism in Britain.
Engagement with the next generation
• continue building links with the children, grandchildren and future descendants of Holocaust survivors, to ensure that they are never forgotten.
• empower the next generation so they can challenge Holocaust denial and distortion and champion the cause of Holocaust remembrance.
43. United States of America
Promoting Holocaust remembrance and combatting anti-Semitism remain top policy priorities of the United States, especially as the world witnesses an alarming rise in anti-Semitism. We unequivocally condemn all attacks targeting Jews, Jewish places of worship, community centers, and cemeteries,
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as well as anti-Semitic rhetoric in the United States and abroad. As President Biden said on May 28, 2021, “In recent days, we have seen that no community is immune. We must all stand together to silence these terrible and terrifying echoes of the worst chapters in world history, and pledge to give hate no safe harbor.”
Secretary of State Blinken is announcing the following United States pledges at the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism:
• One-million-dollars for a program to counter anti-Semitic hate speech online in the Middle East and North Africa.
• An expanded series of International Visitor Leadership Projects starting Fall/Winter of 2021–2022 to confront and counter Holocaust distortion and anti-Semitism in North Africa, the Middle East, Europe, and Latin America. • Working with our Congress, the United States plans to provide $1 million in Central Europe to support the IHRA Global Task Force Against Holocaust Denial and Distortion in Central Europe.
44. European Commission
At the Malmö International Forum, the Commission pledges its first-ever EU Strategy on combating antisemitism and fostering Jewish life. With antisemitism worryingly on the rise, in Europe and beyond, the Strategy sets out a series of measures articulated around three pillars:
I. Preventing and combating all forms of antisemitism;
II. Protecting and fostering Jewish life; and
III Education, Research and Holocaust remembrance.
Some of the key measures in the strategy include:
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I. Preventing and combating all forms of antisemitism:
The Commission will support the creation of a Europe-wide network of independent trusted flaggers, fact checkers and Jewish organisations to help remove illegal hate speech online and address antisemitic conspiracy myths and disinformation through developing counter narratives. The Commission will cooperate with industry and IT companies to prevent the illegal display and selling of Nazi-related symbols, memorabilia and literature online. The Commission will mobilise EU funds and support Member States in designing and implementing their national strategies as well as improve and align their methodologies for recording and collecting of data on antisemitic hate crime.
II. Protecting and fostering Jewish life in the EU:
To ensure that Jews feel safe and can participate fully in European life, the Commission will double EU funding to better protect public spaces and places of worship to 24 Mio in 2022. It will cooperate closely with Europol and encourage Member States to make use of Europol’s support to counter terrorism activities, both online and offline. To foster Jewish life, the Commission will support actions together with Jewish communities, to safeguard Jewish heritage and raise awareness around Jewish life, culture and traditions.
III. Education, research and Holocaust remembrance:
The Commission will support the creation of a network of lesser-known local places “where the Holocaust happened”, such as hiding places or shooting grounds. The Commission will also support a new network of Young European Ambassadors to promote remembrance of the Holocaust. With EU funding, the Commission will support the creation of a European research hub on contemporary antisemitism and Jewish life and finance educational professionals’ training on “Adressing antisemitism through education” by UNESCO/OSCE-ODIHR. To highlight Jewish heritage, the Commission will invite cities applying for the title of European Capital of Culture to address the history of their minorities, including Jewish community history.
The EU will use all available tools to call on partner countries to combat antisemitism in the EU neighbourhood and beyond, including through cooperation with international organisations. It will ensure that EU external
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funds may not be misallocated to activities that incite hatred and violence, including against Jewish people. The EU will strengthen EU-Israel cooperation in the fight against antisemitism and promote the revitalisation of Jewish heritage worldwide.
45. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
If the European Union fails its Jewish Community, then it itself has failed. The stakes are that high. The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights is steadfast in its commitment to combat antisemitism in all its forms and manifestations. In doing so, it will continue to work with the EU and its Member States; with international organisations; with the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance; with Jewish community organisations; and, with national bodies with a human rights or equality remit.
Pledge 1: Periodic surveys on the lived experience of antisemitism
The Agency pledges to continue conducting its periodic survey on experiences and perceptions of antisemitism among Jews in the EU. The Agency will roll out its next survey in 2022, and at regular intervals thereafter. This survey provides all stakeholders in the field with the most comprehensive source of reliable evidence on the lived experience of antisemitism among Jews in the EU, including as regards experiences of online antisemitism. This evidence can be the basis for taking targeted action to protect Jewish life in the EU. The Agency also stands ready to provide interested parties with advice on how to conduct such surveys, at the national and international levels.
Pledge 2: Assistance in monitoring the implementation of strategies on combating antisemitism
The Agency pledges to provide the EU and its Member States with evidence, assistance and expertise to support them in monitoring the implementation of their strategies on combating antisemitism and promoting Jewish life. As part of this, the Agency will publish an annual update on antisemitism in the EU, with a focus on three areas: the situation of recording of and data collection on antisemitic incidents; the state of play on the roll out of strategies to combat antisemitism; and, the ways in which EU Member States (intend to) use the IHRA working definition of antisemitism.
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Pledge 3: Assistance in improving recording and encouraging reporting of antisemitic incidents
The Agency pledges to assist national authorities in EU Member States in improving the recording of and data collection on antisemitism, including law enforcement authorities. The Agency will also work with these authorities and other bodies to encourage victims and witnesses to report antisemitic incidents to relevant organisations, so that they can seek justice and redress against perpetrators. The Agency will work with public bodies and civil society organisations to enhance their cooperation in all of these areas.
46. International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)
The International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) is committed to fulfill its mandate as stipulated in the Stockholm Declaration (2000) and the 2020 IHRA Ministerial Declaration. Therefore, on the occasion of the Malmö International Forum, the IHRA makes three pledges that will provide practical responses to the pressing societal challenges of Holocaust distortion, education about the Genocide of the Roma and ensuring open access to archival material bearing on the Holocaust.
1. Holocaust distortion attacks the very heart of our democratic and open societies. It paves the way for Holocaust denial, conspiracy thinking, violent antisemitism and extreme forms of nationalism. Holocaust distortion does not stop at national borders, and countering it requires international cooperation. Therefore,
the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance and UNESCO pledge to jointly address rising Holocaust denial and distortion as a virulent form of contemporary antisemitism. We will develop resources and trainings to support policymakers, civil servants, journalists, and stakeholders from the field of education, to address Holocaust distortion in their respective professional environments.
2. Discrimination against Roma has existed for centuries. The neglect of the genocide of the Roma, carried out by Nazi Germany and its collaborators, has contributed to the prejudice and discrimination that many Roma communities still experience today. Anti-Roma discrimination, like any other form of discrimination, undermines the core values of our democratic societies. Therefore,
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the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance pledges to develop recommendations for teaching and learning about the genocide of the Roma.
These recommendations will provide policymakers and stakeholders from the field of education with an educationally sound framework for teaching about the genocide of the Roma, and help to increase awareness of this history as well as existing forms of anti-Roma discrimination in our societies.
3. Six million Jewish men, women and children were murdered in the Holocaust. More than one million are yet to be identified by name. Holocaust-related documents, that can help to identify victims as well as perpetrators, are scattered across the world, often not recognized as such in financial, business, and academic archives. Therefore,
the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance pledges to develop recommendations on identifying Holocaust-related materials, so that victims, survivors, and their descendants can reclaim their histories and their identities.
The recommendations aim to empower archivists, researchers, and civil society to identify, preserve, and make available archival material that will help us to better understand the history of the Holocaust.
47. OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR)
OSCE participating States have repeatedly condemned anti-Semitism and other forms of intolerance and discrimination, beginning with the Copenhagen Document of the Conference on Security and Co-operation Europe in 1990.
With the 2014 Basel Ministerial Council Declaration on “Enhancing Efforts to Combat Anti-Semitism”, participating States expressed their “concern at the disconcerting number of anti-Semitic incidents that continue to take place in the OSCE area and remain a challenge to stability and security” and called on ODIHR to “facilitate co-operation between governmental officials and civil society on issues related to anti-Semitism, including hate crime and Holocaust remembrance.”
Against the backdrop of the disquieting rise of anti-Semitism across the OSCE region, ODIHR will provide robust assistance to OSCE participating States and civil society to effectively address anti-Semitism in all its forms:
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• In the area of security, ODIHR pledges to build effective communication between law enforcement officials and Jewish communities to better address the security needs of Jewish communities and further improve governmental responses to anti-Semitic hate crimes.
• In the area of education, ODIHR pledges to address anti-Semitism by developing a new course and building on its existing tools and programmes.
• In the area of online anti-Semitism, ODIHR pledges to build the capacity of Jewish communities and civil society to engage with technology companies on matters of policy and regulation.
48. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Throughout the year, UNESCO promotes education about the Holocaust around the world, recalling the universal importance of Holocaust remembrance and our global duty to teach and learn about this history. Furthermore, UNESCO is dedicated, in partnership with other international bodies, civil society organizations and governments across the globe to combatting antisemitism under all its forms, with focus on the role of education.
As we enter a new era of remembrance, in a world with ever fewer survivors of the Holocaust, UNESCO will expand its global programme on Holocaust education, strengthening the collective responsibility to remember, care for historic sites, promote education, documentation and research about the genocide of the Jewish people. UNESCO will also strengthen its engagement to address the alarming rise of antisemitism, hate speech and other forms of intolerance and discrimination, and to provide education authorities with the tools to tackle all forms of contemporary antisemitism:
Firstly, UNESCO pledges to advance the institutionalization of Holocaust education globally by developing programmes that resonate with local audiences and histories.
In partnership with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and with the support of the Government of Canada, UNESCO will support Holocaust and genocide education initiatives worldwide, prioritizing countries in which Holocaust education is not advanced. To accompany the
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programme, UNESCO will develop further guidelines for policymakers and an e-learning course on addressing violent pasts through education.
Secondly, UNESCO pledges to advance education to counter the rise of antisemitism.
UNESCO commits to this by building the capacity of policymakers, educators, school leaders and young people through international, regional and national workshops to recognize and respond to antisemitism, conspiracy theories and all other forms of hate speech, in a framework of human rights and global citizenship education. Building on our guidance for policymakers and set of training curricula, UNESCO and the OSCE/ODIHR will jointly develop a free e-learning course for educators and staff in international organizations.
Thirdly, in partnership with the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA), UNESCO jointly pledges to counter rising Holocaust denial and distortion as virulent forms of contemporary antisemitism.
UNESCO and IHRA will develop resources and training to support educators, policymakers, civil servants and journalists in addressing Holocaust distortion in their respective professional environments. The resources will supplement a guide and online tool to support teachers in strengthening the resilience of learners against Holocaust denial and distortion, developed with the United Nations and the World Jewish Congress.
Civil Society organisations
49. American Jewish Committee
1. AJC has been involved in fighting antisemitism around the world since 1906. We are delighted to share that extensive experience with any and all governments, as well as non-governmental institutions, that would like to draw upon it.
2. Knowing there is no overnight solution to antisemitism—alas, there is not yet a Pfizer vaccine against antisemitism—we will hold governments accountable for years to come, because this is a commitment that must be sustained over the long haul. There’s a millennia-long history to
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antisemitism. Consequently, attention and focus must remain on antisemitism not only today, but also tomorrow and the day after.
3. We share in the belief that Holocaust memory and education are absolutely essential to the fight against antisemitism. We also know the ultimate expression of understanding is to defend living Jews, and not only to mourn dead Jews.
4. For us, Israel, the nation-state of the Jewish people, is absolutely central to our belief in the wellbeing and security of the Jewish people. We will encourage nations to deepen their relations with Israel, and we will oppose all efforts to delegitimize Israel, isolate it within the community of nations, or deny the Jewish people their sovereign right to self-determination in their ancestral land.
50. Anti-defamation league
Pledge of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) to the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism, 13 October 2021.
We pledge to share ADL’s digital education program about antisemitism education for students with partners in Europe and around the world. The program addresses the number one concern we hear from Jewish communities – that the general public doesn’t know enough about Jews and Jewish identity, and that knowledge vacuum is often filled by antisemitic stereotypes. The digital education program about antisemitism will be adapted for each Jewish community to reflect their history and the antisemitism challenges they face. Through the program’s relatable stories, students build knowledge, empathy, perspective and allyship.
51. B’nai B’rith International
B’nai B’rith International is dedicated to improving the quality of life for people around the globe, together with our over 100 000 members and supporters around the world. Since our founding in 1843, B’nai B’rith has spoken out against anti-Semitism and intolerance in all its forms.
We are proud to pledge our sponsorship of the None Shall Be Afraid program, which provides a way for individuals and local communities to foster tolerance and responsibility.
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Through None Shall Be Afraid, B’nai B’rith will continue to remind the world that hatred and violence against Jews is unacceptable and indifference has dire consequences.
In the wake of the utter devastation of the Holocaust, we witnessed the persistence of anti-Semitism across over the more than 70 years that followed Nazi rule. Collectively we learned that, far from being merely a threat to Jews, anti-Semitism erodes the very fabric of democratic societies.
We are committed to bringing about a society where “None Shall Be Afraid”. This is our pledge in response to the world’s oldest hatred.
On the occasion of the Malmö International Forum, we are promoting a personal pledge to respect others, as well as introducing essay and art competitions for youth. This pledge addresses the most fundamental issues being tackled by the forum: the importance of education, of combating Holocaust distortion, of promoting respect for human rights and dignity. It seeks to raise awareness of contemporary forms of anti-Semitism and invites signatories to disengage from discourses of difference.
The creative competitions are meant to stimulate engagement and to create a sense of responsibility among students. Communities are encouraged to promote the competition within their schools and youth groups. Young people are essential to the fight against anti-Semitism and hatred. Younger generations are at the heart of fostering Jewish life today.
Our message is one of perseverance: We continue to inform and advise policymakers, to speak out against Holocaust denial, distortion and trivialization, to unmask anti-Semitism stemming from double standards, delegitimization and the demonization of Israel – and to address rising online hate and extremism.
But combating anti-Semitism is everyone’s responsibility. We are committed to raising awareness and building understanding across every part of society.
We need everyone’s help in defeating the world’s oldest hatred, because everyone counts.
52. European Jewish Congress
The European Jewish Congress (EJC), the representative umbrella organisation of 42 national Jewish communities across Europe, welcomes
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the initiative of a concrete outcome document for the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism.
This document, consisting of concrete pledges strengthening Holocaust remembrance and combatting antisemitism and racism, will inform joint efforts between governments and civil society and bring about tangible progress.
On this historic occasion, the European Jewish Congress pledges to:
• Continue its enduring task of preserving the memory of the Holocaust through the promotion of educational programmes and materials, visits to concentration camps, commemorative events and other activities.
• Continue organising annual high-level events honouring the memory of the victims of the Holocaust and combatting antisemitism, in cooperation with the European institutions and national governments.
• In particular, hold high-level international fora on Holocaust remembrance and renewing the fight against antisemitism every five years, in cooperation with the World Holocaust Forum Foundation.
• Gather, preserve, translate and disseminate the written and recorded testimonies of the survivors of the Holocaust.
• Engage with all relevant stakeholders to explore new and innovative ways to transmit the memory of the Holocaust to the young generation.
• Engage with all relevant stakeholders to explore ways to channel social media as a force for good in the fight against extremism, including through the use of influencers and counter-narratives.
• Promote the freedom to conduct academic research on the Holocaust, free from political interference.
• Support grassroots initiatives combating antisemitism, racism and all forms of intolerance as well as preserving and promoting the memory of the Holocaust through the European Jewish Fund.
• Strengthen resilience, security awareness and crisis management among Jewish communities and enhance cooperation with law enforcement
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authorities through the Security and Crisis Center by EJC (SACC by EJC).
• Continue gathering data and producing annual reports on contemporary manifestations of antisemitism worldwide to inform governments and civil society, in cooperation with the Kantor Center at Tel Aviv University.
• Promote the IHRA working definition of antisemitism, the IHRA working definition of antigypsyism/anti-Roma discrimination, and the IHRA working definition of Holocaust denial and distortion.
• Strengthen inter-religious and intercultural dialogue and cooperation to contribute to a democratic Europe based on peace, understanding and tolerance.
• Speak out against any and all forms of hatred and intolerance.
53. European Roma Rights Centre
We pledge to remember the panj shel mila – the 500,000 or more Romani people who, alongside Jews, were the only two peoples targeted in the Nazi’s final solution to rid the continent of our ancestors.
We pledge to commemorate the injustices done to us, and the further years of injustice done by Europe in the denial of the Romani Holocaust. For Roma, the Holocaust did not mean the end of hatred and discrimination against us. The ideologies of white supremacy which led to the indiscriminate slaughter of our families in the 1940s remained firmly embedded in European society, long after the liberation of the concentration camps. The legacy of the Nazi Race Laws, of the propaganda, the persecution, and the categorisation of Roma as “undesirable” lives on in Europe today: in every segregated community without water or electricity; in every Romani woman coercively sterilised from 1945 to 2012; in every Romani schoolchild segregated from her non-Roma peers, in every Romani person beaten to death at the hands of police officers just doing their job.
We pledge to disrupt this ideology. We pledge to agitate, to educate, and to litigate in every way we can to ensure that the horrors of the 20th century are not repeated in an increasingly illiberal and institutionally racist Europe. We pledge to fight until we are no longer necessary, and Europe’s Romani
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peoples are free to enjoy what most other European citizens take for granted: the freedom to live an ordinary life.
54. The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association (ILGA World)
During the Nazi regime, millions of persons were annihilated at the hands of a system and society that had been warped into compliant acceptance of hate.
Among those millions, are an estimated 100,000 persons who were, or were assumed to be, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex and were arrested for violating laws against same-sex sexual conduct or for just being different. They were sentenced to prison, and some were sent to concentration camps.
People were marked with pink triangles, and policies were designed to ‘cure’ them through humiliation and forced labour. Inmates were subject to medical experimentation causing illness, mutilation, and death.
We now know these stories. But that wasn’t always the case. After the war, LGBTI survivors were initially not acknowledged. Often, they were repudiated by their families; some continued to be imprisoned because of continuing laws criminalising consensual same-sex conduct.
We are thankful for those who found the courage to break the silence. But memory is a fragile and precious thing, and most Holocaust survivors are no longer with us.
Their stories matter, especially now that we see nationalism and fascism on the rise again, always searching for enemies to scapegoat. These ideologies employ a strategy of targeting entire marginalized communities and today we face well-resourced and coordinated efforts to again weave seductive lies to the world, often on social media.
The communities targeted are often blurred into one almighty “other”. We witnessed this in 2019 when our office was vandalized twice with a stream of graffiti that blurred transphobia, with anti-semitiism, anti-Jewish conspiracy theories, and homophobia.
Hatred is a fire that spreads without distinction. We cannot just remain vigilant: we need to eradicate it together.
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Therefore, we pledge to:
• combat all forms of intolerance – online and offline – with our advocacy, research and communications work addressing the human rights violations faced by LGBTI persons
• challenge those that seek to normalize prejudice: fighting back misinformation with education on how LGBTI-phobia intersects with other forms of racism and intolerance
• provide positive examples of what inclusion, respect, tolerance, and diversity look like
• call for all governments and other holders of power to use their influence to tackle the underlying causes and consequences of intolerance
• be available to governments with our grass-roots expertise as they develop national responses to tackle the root causes of intoleranc
• continue to mark the International Day of Commemoration in memory of the victims of the Holocaust.
55. World Jewish Congress
The World Jewish Congress, under the leadership of President Ronald S. Lauder, represents more than 100 Jewish communities and organizations around the globe and acts as the principal voice representing the Jewish world, advocating on its behalf towards governments, parliaments, international, interfaith and other organizations. Since its founding in 1936, the WJC has demonstrated an unwavering commitment to combating antisemitism in all its guises.
We are currently witnessing an alarming rise in antisemitism across the globe. The growth of extreme far-right parties in Europe and a proliferation of anti-Zionist sentiment has contributed to an atmosphere in which many Jews are afraid to openly identify as such, and Jewish communities are frequently a main target for extremists. Antisemitism is still a deeply-rooted phenomenon in many liberal democracies, despite efforts by governments and independent organizations to tackle it. Antisemitism in all its forms must be combated vigorously by determined actions, including by governments,
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law enforcement, international organizations, civil society organizations, interfaith partners and social media companies.
The WJC pledges to cooperate with these stakeholders and others to fight antisemitism and related phenomena such as Holocaust distortion and denial while working actively to safeguard and protect Jewish life and ensure it can flourish for many generations to come.
The WJC believes that it is the primary role of governments to ensure the security and welfare of their Jewish communities, safeguard their dignity and safety and combat antisemitism in all its manifestations, including Holocaust denial and distortion. The WJC therefore pledges to work with governments to develop and implement national strategies to combat this millennia-old hatred. In order to address this scourge more effectively, decision and policy makers need to understand what antisemitism is. The WJC will continue to advocate and cooperate with governments to adopt and implement the working definition of antisemitism developed by the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) and encourage states to become members of this important body.
The WJC maintains that strong legislation to combat antisemitism, hate speech and extremism remains one of the most important tools to deter and counter these plagues, both off and online. The WJC renews its commitment to work with lawmakers to enact such laws and hold governments accountable to ensure such legislation is enforced stringently.
Given the repeated attacks against Jewish individuals and communities, providing protection for Jewish institutions and houses of worship is paramount. The WJC will persist in its efforts to work with relevant authorities at all levels to protect and safeguard Jewish communities worldwide and defend their civil rights and religious freedoms.
Education also plays a critical role in the struggle against antisemitism and in sensitizing younger generations to the dangers of hate and extremism. The WJC will continue to encourage governments to develop educational systems which foster critical thinking, digital literacy, democratic citizenship education, as well as education about the Holocaust as well as other genocides to build bridges of understanding and high levels of empathy towards the “other”. Educational institutions should also focus on teaching
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Jewish history and culture, as well as recognizing the many contributions the Jewish people have made to the countries in which they live.
Special Envoys and Coordinators Combating Antisemitism
The World Jewish Congress pledges to continue convening international meetings of Special Envoys and Coordinators Combating Antisemitism (SECCA) to exchange views, share best practices and policies, and evaluate progress in the fight against antisemitism. The WJC will work with special envoys and coordinators to address antisemitism both in the domestic and international context and to seek consultations on the topic with other competent authorities in their countries and international organizations. The WJC will continue to call on all countries that have not yet appointed envoys or coordinators to monitor and combat antisemitism to promptly do so. The WJC will support envoy and coordinator efforts to address the security of Jewish communities, the improvement of data gathering on hate crimes, Holocaust education and education against antisemitism, online hate, neo-Nazi movements, and Holocaust denial and distortion in their respective countries.
The WJC pledges to expand its ‘Words into Action to Combat Antisemitism’ program with the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights and the European Commission Office of the EC Coordinator on Combating Antisemitism and Fostering Jewish life on monitoring and combating antisemitism and enhancing the security of Jewish communities. In addition, the WJC will work individually with law enforcement agencies in selected countries, through a series of round tables and workshops with the aim of achieving the required standards in the domain of combating antisemitism and hate speech.
International and Civil Society Organizations
The WJC pledges to strengthen its cooperation with all international and regional organizations, such as the Council of Europe, the European Union, the Organization of American States, OSCE, UNESCO and the United Nations, for our joint fight against antisemitism, hatred and intolerance of all kinds. We will continue and intensify our work with international partners on topics such as combating antisemitism and discrimination through education, countering Holocaust denial and distortion, curbing hate speech
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online, protecting the rights of minorities and promoting genocide prevention. At the same time, the WJC pledges to widen our partnership with civil society organizations on these topics and build alliances to increase our impact and effectiveness.
The WJC will promote interfaith and inter-community collaboration and will work with leaders and partners of all faiths and beliefs to enhance understanding and to promote joint projects to educate against racism, discrimination, and extremism. The WJC pledges to spearhead dialogue between the three Abrahamic religions — Judaism, Islam and Christianity — and create opportunities for better understanding between religious leaders and their communities.
Internet Companies, Sharing Platforms, and Social Media
The WJC will further strengthen its cooperation with internet companies, sharing platforms, and social media to ensure that policies are in place to address the ongoing needs and changing circumstances related to combating antisemitism, violent extremism, Holocaust denial and distortion and other relevant issues.
The WJC will continue to collaborate with platforms and companies on improving the enforcement of related policies and will continue to monitor and report incidents via cooperative channels such as “trusted flagger” and “community partnership” programs.
The WJC will further enhance its efforts to promote educational content on sharing platforms and social media and will continue to promote the aboutholocaust.org website in cooperation with UNESCO on a wide variety of platforms as a tool for education about the Holocaust and for combatting Holocaust denial and distortion.
WJC will further engage with international, regional, and national organizations and governments to address the challenges of the spread of hate and antisemitism online and will increase its membership and involvement in relevant forums and networks.
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The WJC pledges to work tirelessly together with our affiliated communities to advocate on their behalf and in consultation with them to ensure that they can maintain and celebrate the Jewish religion, culture and heritage, all in accordance with local circumstances and needs. This includes defending religious practices integral to Jewish life, such as kosher slaughter (shechita) and circumcision (brit milah), preserving the memory of the Holocaust, as well as combating antisemitism. Of particular importance are the education of young people, the role of the media, and the action by police and the judiciary in bringing perpetrators of antisemitic crimes to justice.
Just as it did at its founding eighty-five years ago, the WJC pledges to continue to protect and defend Jews in their communities worldwide while upholding the dignity and human rights of all peoples.
With the scourge of antisemitism around the world, we recognize the role we can play to help fulfill the promise ‘Never Again’. Holocaust denial and distortion content is hate speech and has no place on our platforms. We remove it when we detect it or it is reported to us, and will continue to improve our enforcement of this important policy.
The removal of Holocaust denial and distortion is important but this alone will not fill the gap of the alarming level of ignorance about the Holocaust, especially among young people. Facebook is committed to helping our community learn about the events that led to the Holocaust and the genocide of one-third of the Jewish people.
Our partnership with the World Jewish Congress and UNESCO connects people on Facebook with authoritative information about the Holocaust at aboutholocaust.org. We are committed to expanding this partnership to include more languages with this information across the platform; we currently include 12 languages.
There are sadly so few Holocaust survivors left today and we pledge that the stories of the six million will be shared and remembered as we continue to
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dedicate resources, personnel and creativity to promote educational materials about the Holocaust on our platforms.
Our partnership with the Claims Conference supporting their It Started With Words campaign on our platform allows the voices of survivors to explain the origins of the Holocaust so that it will never happen again, and our support of Yad Vashem’s iRemember wall enables people around the world to remember the stories of the victims.
When we partner with March of the Living to promote their Let There Be Light campaign, we want to inspire hope to people around the world on November 9, the anniversary of Kristallnacht, that we stand together in the shared battle against antisemitism, racism, hatred and intolerance.
Facebook will continue to listen to the voice of the Jewish community and is committed to our dedicated partner organization engagement roundtables with representatives of the Jewish community around the world. We are also proud that our policy team has a dedicated Jewish Diaspora Policy Director.
As the internet continues to evolve, we are investing $50M in programs and research to determine how to build augmented and virtual reality in a responsible way. The Anne Frank experience on Oculus is an early example of how technology can help society remember and share stories in new ways. Looking ahead, we will ensure that Holocaust remembrance, education and work on antisemitism are reflected across our efforts to build a safer future.
57. Google & YouTube
We will continue to fight hate speech online through our policies, tools and programs, including new funding for governments and leading NGOs
We’re proud to be a part of the Malmö International Forum. Our pledge to the Forum, to our users, and the wider online community, is that we will continue to fight hate speech online through our policies, tools and programmes.
It is critical to remember the events of the Holocaust and to fight antisemitism today and we are committed to combatting hate speech, including hate speech targeting the Jewish community. Content inciting hatred or violence on the basis of someone’s membership of a protected group is not allowed on our products and services. We have a responsibility
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to provide safety to our users, but we balance that with respect for freedom of expression.
We are always working to improve. Across our products and services we are guided by our 4 Rs:
We remove content that violates our policies or local laws where we operate.
We reduce the spread of content that brushes right up against our policy line.
We raise up authoritative voices when people are looking for breaking news and information. And lastly, we reward trusted, eligible creators and artists.
We recognize the importance of working together with governments and civil society to address these issues, and that we have a shared responsibility to promote Holocaust education and combat antisemitism both online and offiline.
To further strengthen that effort, and building on our previous anti-hate work, today we are committing more than €5M from Google.org in monetary grants and in-kind ad donations to fight antisemitism and promote Holocaust education:
1. A €1 million cash grant commitment to nonprofits fighting antisemitism online. As part of this commitment, Expo foundation has carried out research together with HOPE not Hate and Amadeu Antonio Foundation to understand the growth and spread of antisemitism online in Europe, and these organizations will be educating other civil society actors about the results and learnings of the report.
2. The balance of more than €4 million ($5 million USD) in ad grants will go towards helping governments and nonprofits around the world combat antisemitism online and promote authoritative content through public campaigns about antisemitism and the Holocaust.
We’ll continue to work together to ensure that the world never forgets and we will continue to work together to fight hate speech and antisemitism online.
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At TikTok, our priority is to provide a safe space for creative expression, with hundreds of millions of people around the world coming to our platform every day to be entertained and find joy.
Hateful behaviour is incompatible with our inclusive environment, and we’ll take all necessary steps to help protect our community from those who seek to spread hate.
We condemn antisemitism in all its forms, and we continually invest in our technology and teams as we work to keep any such content off TikTok.
We know education plays a critical role in striking out hate, which is why we partner with organisations so that people can hear from the Jewish community, learn about the Holocaust, and understand their role in fighting modern-day antisemitism.
We pledge to put our full strength behind keeping TikTok a place that is free of hate, and to harness the power of TikTok to educate our community as we join forces in the fight against antisemitism. In particular, we will commit to:
• Eliminate antisemitism on TikTok: We remove antisemitic content and accounts from our platform, including Holocaust denial or any other form of hate speech directed at the Jewish Community – but our work here is never complete. We will keep strengthening our toolbox for fighting antisemitic content and continue to work with organisations such as the World Jewish Congress to understand evolving trends and improve our strategies and processes.
• Elevate voices representing the Jewish community: We will expand our work to help NGOs and other civil society groups harness the full power of TikTok and find new, creative ways to share their knowledge about topics of importance to the Jewish community and take part in educational campaigns on TikTok.
• Educate our community: We will direct our community to educational resources, including content created by our partners, so that people can learn about the Holocaust, the Jewish community and modern-day antisemitism. We will do this all year round, as well as running campaigns to coincide with important moments such as Holocaust Memorial Day.
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Our goal is to eliminate hate on TikTok, and we are committed to that for as long as it takes.
59. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
For the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum pledges to
1. Expand the translated resources of the Museum’s online content into critical languages, especially those for which authoritative information about the Holocaust may be limited (for example, Spanish, Arabic, Polish and Ukrainian, among others).
2. Through the Never Again Education Act, enhance the ability of the Museum to support all 50 US states by providing educational resources and professional development opportunities for communities that have local Holocaust centers and experts as well as underserved areas in order to strengthen the field of Holocaust education nationwide.
3. Encourage the development of Holocaust-focused institutions in other countries, particularly in the lands where the Holocaust occurred and where engagement with the subject remains uncertain or under threat.
60. Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem, the World Holocaust Remembrance Center, in Jerusalem, in support of worldwide efforts to ensure accurate and meaningful Holocaust remembrance, by all of humanity, and to effectively combat contemporary antisemitism, in all its forms, hereby issues the following pledges:
As the passage of time endangers the integrity and security of Holocaust memory, Yad Vashem pledges to invest substantial resources and expertise to significantly expand and enhance its already vast collections infrastructure upon the Mount of Remembrance in Jerusalem.
These efforts will be directed primarily towards:
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• The improved preservation Holocaust-era and Holocaust-related documents, artifacts and artwork
• The provision of technologically advanced means of worldwide public access to the preserved materials
• The development of supplementary tools to assist in the appreciation and integration of the preserved materials in coherent educational and communications contexts, including via social media
As the meanings of the Holocaust for wide and varied societies, cultures and communities become ever more apparent, Yad Vashem pledges to invest substantial resources and expertise to geographically and culturally broaden its educational outreach frameworks, tools and activities. This includes dialogue, training and support for key influencers in such regions as Latin America, East Asia and Oceania, Sub-Saharan Africa, and indigenous communities worldwide. The widened scope of our activities in new areas and contexts must not and will not detract or limit extensive Yad Vashem activity in the existing core arenas of Holocaust remembrance.
As we witness the alarming increase of hateful expressions and patterns of contemporary antisemitism, racism and xenophobia – in Europe, America and elsewhere – Yad Vashem pledges to devise, develop and implement new strategies and tools that integrate its existing approaches and tools in Holocaust education with social media and public diplomacy to combat current forms of antisemitism. This must and will be done without compromising the factual integrity of each content area and without blurring the substantive distinctions between them.
Since genuine and effective Holocaust remembrance has always been and will always be rooted in authentic, comprehensive documentation and fact-based research findings, Yad Vashem pledges to expand existing research formats, framework and contacts and establish new ones, whether autonomously or together with corresponding institutions around the world, in regard to the Holocaust and to antisemitism.
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Participants at Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism, 13 October 2021
1. Albania – Prime Minister Edi Rama
2. Argentina – Ambassador Maria Clara Biglieri
3. Australia – Ambassador Kerin Ayyalaraju
4. Austria – Minister for Europe Karoline Edtstadler
5. Belgium – Ambassador Jean Deboutte
6. Bosnia and Herzegovina – Chairman of the Presidency Željko Komšić and Member of the Presidency Šefik Džaferović
7. Bulgaria – Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs Zaritsa Dinkova
8. Canada – Prime Minister Justin Trudeau (speech live online) and Ambassador to Germany and Special Envoy to the European Union and Europe Stéphane Dion
9. Croatia – Minister of Foreign and European Affairs Gordan Grlić Radman
10. Cyprus – Ambassador Sotos Liassides
11. Czech Republic – Minister of Foreign Affairs Jakub Kulhanek 12. Denmark – Minister for Justice Nick Hækkerup
13. El Salvador – Vice President Felix Ulloa Jr
14. Estonia – Prime Minister Kaja Kallas
15. Finland – President Sauli Niinistö
16. France – President Emmanuel Macron (video message) and Special Ambassador for Human Rights, responsible for the international dimension of the Shoah, spoliations and the duty of remembrance Delphine Borione
17. Germany – Minister of State for Europe at the Federal Foreign Office Michael Roth
18. Greece – Deputy Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic Panagiotis Pikrammenos
19. Holy See – Apostolic Nuncio James Green
20. Hungary – Minister for Families Katalin Novák
21. Iceland – Ambassador Hannes Heimisson
22. Ireland – Taoiseach Micheál Martin (speech live online) and Ambassador Austin Gromley
23. Israel – President Isaac Herzog (speech live online) and Minister of Diaspora Affairs Nachman Shai
24. Italy – Minister of Education Patrizio Bianchi
25. Latvia – President Egils Levits
26. Lithuania – President Gitanas Nauseda
27. Luxemburg – Ambassador-at-large for Human Rights Anne Goedert
28. Moldova – Ambassador Vitalie Rusu
29. Monaco – Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs and cooperation Isabelle Rosabrunetto
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30. North Macedonia – President Stevo Pendarovski
31. Norway – Ambassador Aud Kolberg
32. Poland – Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of Culture, National Heritage and Sport Piotr Gliński
33. Portugal – Minister of Foreign Affairs Augusto Santos Silva
34. Romania – President Klaus Iohannis
35. Russia – Deputy Speaker of the Federation Council of the federal Assembly Konstantin Kosachev
36. Rwanda – Minister of National Unity and Civic Engagement Jean-Damascène Bizimana
37. Serbia – Ambassador Dragan Momčilović
38. Slovakia – Prime Minister Eduard Heger
39. Slovenia – Ambassador Edvin Skrt
40. Spain – Minister of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation José Manuel Albares
41. Switzerland – State Secretary Simon Geissbühler
42. The Netherlands – Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations Kajsa Ollongren
43. Turkey – Ambassador Emre Yunt
44. Ukraine – Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal
45. United Kingdom – Lord Eric Pickles
46. United States of America – United States Secretary of State Antony Blinken (video message) and United States Deputy Secretary of State for Management and Resources Brian McKeon
47. Uruguay – Ambassador José Luis Tejera
1. Arolsen Archives – Director Floriane Azoulay (online)
2. Council of Europe – Secretary General Marija Pejčinović Burić
3. European Commission – President Ursula von der Leyen (speech live online) and Vice President Margaritis Schinas
4. European Council – President Charles Michel
5. European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights – Director Michael O’Flaherty
6. Holocaust and the United Nations Outreach Programme – Manager Tracey Petersen (online)
7. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) – Chairperson-in-Office Ann Linde
8. Secretariat of International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) Secretary General Kathrin Meyer
9. United Nations – Secretary-General Antonio Guterres (video message)
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10. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) – ADG/ED Stefania Giannini (speech live online) and Programme Specialist Karel Fracapane
11. High Representative for the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations Miguel Ángel Moratinos
12. United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief Ahmed Shaheed (speech live online)
Civil society organisations
1. American Jewish Committee – President Harriet Schleifer (speech live online) and Managing Director of AJC Europe Simone Rodan-Benzaquen
2. Anti-defamation league – CEO Jonathan Greenblatt
3. B’nai B’rith International – Director EU Affairs Alina Bricman
4. Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations – CEO William Daroff (speech live online)
5. European Jewish Congress – President Moshe Kantor
6. European Roma Institute for Arts and Culture – Deputy Director Anna Mirga-Kruszelnicka (speech live online)
7. European Roma and Travellers Forum – President Miranda Vuolasranta
8. European Roma Rights Centre – Chair of the Board Ethel Brooks (speech live online)
9. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex World Association – Executive Director André du Plessis
10. World Jewish Congress – President Ronald Lauder
1. Facebook – COO Sheryl Sandberg (speech live online) and Facebook Public Policy Director, Israel & the Jewish Diaspora Jordana Cutler
2. Google & YouTube – Vice President of global client & agency solutions in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Pedro Pina
3. TikTok – Director of Government Relations and Public Policy for Europe Theo Bertram
1. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Director Sarah J Bloomfield (online) and Deputy Director for International Affairs Robert Williams
2. Yad Vashem – Chairman Dani Dayan
3. Professor Yehuda Bauer
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The Swedish Royal Court
HM King Carl XVI Gustaf and HM Queen Silvia of Sweden
The Riksdag of Sweden
Speaker Andreas Norlén
The Swedish Government
1. Prime Minister Stefan Löfven
2. Minister for Education Anna Ekström
3. Minister of Foreign Affairs Ann Linde
4. Minister for Gender Equality and Housing, with responsibility for urban development, anti-segregation and anti-discrimination Märta Stenevi
Call by scholars: Stop instrumentalising antisemitism
BRUSSELS, 11. OCT, 07:26
We issue this call as scholars working in antisemitism studies and related fields.
On 13-14 October 2021, the leaders of the European Union and the United Nations and heads of state and government from many countries will meet at the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism.
Swedish prime minister Stefan Löfven convenes this forum 21 years after the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust, which resulted in the Stockholm Declaration, the founding document of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA).
We welcome and support the declared purpose of the Malmö Forum “to jointly take concrete steps forward in the work on Holocaust remembrance and the fight against antisemitism”.
Antisemitism and all other forms of racism and bigotry pose a growing threat that must be fought most forcefully. We commend governments’ resolve and efforts in this regard.
At the same time, we issue a stark warning against the political instrumentalisation of the fight against antisemitism. In the interest of the integrity, credibility and effectiveness of that fight, we urge the leaders at the Malmö Forum to reject and counter this instrumentalisation.
A particular concern in this context is the “working definition of antisemitism” that the IHRA adopted in May 2016, in the aftermath of the 2015 Global Forum for Combating Antisemitism organised by the Israeli government.
Eleven “contemporary examples of antisemitism” have been attached to this IHRA definition, seven of which relate to Israel. These examples are being weaponised against human rights organisations and solidarity activists who denounce Israel’s occupation and human-rights violations.
They legitimise wrongful accusations of antisemitism, which serve as a warning for anyone voicing criticism of Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. This has a chilling effect on free speech and academic freedom and compromises the fight against antisemitism.
Regrettably, this clear abuse of the IHRA definition and of the examples has so far not been acknowledged by governments and parliaments that have adopted it. More concerning, the European Union is working hard to implement the IHRA definition across multiple policy areas and to entrench it society-wide.
In January 2021, the European Commission published a “Handbook” for that purpose, which was harshly criticised by civil society stakeholders. Among other initiatives, the handbook promotes giving legal effect to the IHRA definition and cultivates it as a criterion to allocate or deny funding to civil society organisations. We fear this is a prelude to discriminatory and repressive policies.
On 5 October 2021, the European Commission presented the EU’s long-awaited “Strategy on Combating Antisemitism and Fostering Jewish Life”.
Like the aforementioned handbook, this strategy ignores the growing concerns about the shortcomings and instrumentalisation of the IHRA definition, as also raised by various stakeholders in the context of a public consultation launched by the Commission; including this academic expert submission, with an annex illustrating the instrumentalisation of the IHRA definition and a joint letter by 10 European NGOs and networks. In fact, the EU’s new strategy feeds these concerns.
With concern, we note that the political instrumentalisation of the fight against antisemitism and of the IHRA definition is being facilitated by coordinators and commissioners appointed by the European Commission and national governments.
In particular in Germany, this has created a toxic and intimidating atmosphere. We notice coordination with and reliance on lobby organisations shielding the Israeli government.
This political entanglement has a divisive and polarising effect, which undermines broad support for the fight against antisemitism and distracts attention from acute sources of antisemitism. It also contradicts the universalist spirit of the Stockholm Declaration, which is missing from the IHRA definition.
By contrast, an alternative definition of antisemitism launched earlier this year does carry this spirit: the Jerusalem Declaration on Antisemitism (JDA).
The JDA was crafted by a group of scholars from the United States, Israel, Europe, and the UK, who have vast experience with the IHRA definition.
After more than one year of deliberations, the JDA was launched in March 2021. It has been endorsed by more than 300 scholars of antisemitism and related fields, including many heads of institutes in Europe and the US.
We encourage the leaders at the Malmö Forum to add the JDA to their policy toolbox and rely on it for guidance. Rooted in universal principles, the JDA is clearer and more coherent than the IHRA definition. Without any underlying political agenda, it offers guidance concerning political speech where the IHRA definition has created muddle and controversy.
We recommend the JDA also in view of prime minister Löfven’s statement, issued in anticipation of the Malmö Forum: “We must address Holocaust denial and antisemitism by protecting and promoting democratic values and respect for human rights”. The JDA reflects and respects democratic values and human rights.
For the sake of a concrete outcome of the Malmö Forum, the Swedish government has invited all participating delegations to present “pledges”.
We call on the leaders at the Malmö Forum to jointly pledge to reject and counter the escalating political instrumentalisation of the fight against antisemitism, which undermines democratic values and human rights and is causing grave harm to this fight.==============================================
Call by scholars on global leaders at Malmö Forum on Combating Antisemitism
11 October 2021
We issue this call as scholars working in antisemitism studies and related fields.
On 13-14 October 2021, the leaders of the European Union and the United Nations and heads of state and government from many countries will meet at the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism. Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven convenes this forum 21 years after the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust, which resulted in the Stockholm Declaration, the founding document of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA).
We welcome and support the declared purpose of the Malmö Forum “to jointly take concrete steps forward in the work on Holocaust remembrance and the fight against antisemitism”. Antisemitism and all other forms of racism and bigotry pose a growing threat that must be fought most forcefully. We commend governments’ resolve and efforts in this regard.
At the same time, we issue a stark warning against the political instrumentalization of the fight against antisemitism. In the interest of the integrity, credibility and effectiveness of that fight, we urge the leaders at the Malmö Forum to reject and counter this instrumentalization.
A particular concern in this context is the “working definition of antisemitism” that the IHRA adopted in May 2016, in the aftermath of the 2015 Global Forum for Combating Antisemitism organized by the Israeli government.
Eleven “contemporary examples of antisemitism” have been attached to this IHRA definition, seven of which relate to Israel. Several of these examples are being weaponized against human rights organizations and solidarity activists who denounce Israel’s occupation and human rights violations. They legitimize wrongful accusations of antisemitism, which serve as a warning for anyone voicing criticism of Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. This has a chilling effect on free speech and academic freedom and compromises the fight against antisemitism.
Regrettably, this clear abuse of the IHRA definition and of the examples has so far not been acknowledged by governments and parliaments that have adopted it. More concerning, the European Union is working hard to implement the IHRA definition across multiple policy areas and to entrench it society-wide. In January 2021, the European Commission published a “Handbook” for that purpose, which was harshly criticized by civil society stakeholders. Among other initiatives, the handbook promotes giving legal effect to the IHRA definition and cultivates it as a criterion to allocate or deny funding to civil society organizations. We fear this is a prelude to discriminatory and repressive policies.
On 5 October 2021, the European Commission presented the EU’s long-awaited “Strategy on Combating Antisemitism and Fostering Jewish Life”. Like the aforementioned handbook, this strategy ignores the growing concerns about the shortcomings and instrumentalization of the IHRA definition, as also raised by various stakeholders in the context of a public consultation
launched by the Commission; including this academic
expert submission with annex illustrating the instrumentalization of the IHRA definition and a joint letter by ten European NGOs and networks. In fact, the EU’s new strategy feeds these concerns.
With concern, we also note that the political instrumentalization of the fight against antisemitism and of the IHRA definition is being facilitated by coordinators and commissioners appointed by the European Commission and national governments. In particular in Germany, this has created a toxic and intimidating atmosphere. We notice coordination with and reliance on lobby organizations shielding the Israeli government.
This political approach and entanglement has a divisive and polarizing effect, which undermines broad support for the fight against antisemitism and distracts attention from acute sources of antisemitism. It also contradicts the universalist spirit of the Stockholm Declaration, which is missing from the IHRA definition.
By contrast, an alternative definition of antisemitism launched earlier this year does carry this spirit: the Jerusalem Declaration on Antisemitism (JDA). The JDA was crafted by a group of scholars from the United States, Israel, Europe and the UK, who have vast experience with the IHRA definition. After more than one year of deliberations, the JDA was launched in March 2021. It has been endorsed by more than 300 scholars of antisemitism and related fields, including many heads of institutes in Europe and the US.
We encourage the leaders at the Malmö Forum to add the JDA to their policy toolbox and to rely on it for guidance. Rooted in universal principles, the JDA is clearer and more coherent than the IHRA definition. Without any underlying political agenda, it offers guidance concerning political speech where the IHRA definition has created muddle and controversy.
We recommend the JDA also in view of Prime Minister Löfven’s statement, issued in anticipation of the Malmö Forum: “We must address Holocaust denial and antisemitism by protecting and promoting democratic values and respect for human rights”. The JDA reflects and respects democratic values and human rights.
For the sake of a concrete outcome of the Malmö Forum, the Swedish government has invited all participating delegations to present “pledges”. We call on the leaders at the Malmö Forum to jointly pledge to reject and counter the escalating political instrumentalization of the fight against antisemitism, which undermines democratic values and human rights and is causing grave harm to this fight.
Taner Akçam, Professor, Kaloosdian/Mugar Chair Armenian History and Genocide, Clark University
Jean-Christophe Attias, Professor of Medieval Jewish Thought, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Université PSL Paris
Leora Auslander, Arthur and Joann Rasmussen Professor of Western Civilization in the College and the Department of History, University of Chicago
Omer Bartov, John P. Birkelund Distinguished Professor of European History, Department of History, Brown University
Moshe Behar, Dr., Programme Director, Arabic & Middle Eastern Studies, School of Arts, Languages & Cultures, The University of Manchester
David Biale, Emanuel Ringelblum Distinguished Professor, University of California, Davis
Donald Bloxham, Richard Pares Professor of History, University of Edinburgh
Micha Brumlik, Professor Dr., fmr. Director of Fritz Bauer Institut-Geschichte und Wirkung des Holocaust, Frankfurt am Main
Jose Brunner, Professor Emeritus, Buchmann Faculty of Law and Cohn Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science, Tel Aviv University
Naomi Chazan, Professor Emerita of Political Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Bryan Cheyette, Professor and Chair in Modern Literature and Culture, University of Reading
Alon Confino, Pen Tishkach Chair of Holocaust Studies, Professor of History and Jewish Studies, Director Institute for Holocaust, Genocide, and Memory Studies, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Lila Corwin Berman, Murray Friedman Chair of American Jewish History, Temple University
Sidra DeKoven Ezrahi, Professor Emerita of Comparative Literature, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Hasia R. Diner, Professor, New York University
Chaim Gans, Professor Emeritus, The Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University
Sander Gilman, Distinguished Professor of the Liberal Arts and Sciences; Professor of Psychiatry, Emory University
Shai Ginsburg, Associate Professor, Chair of the Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Studies and Faculty Member of the Center for Jewish Studies, Duke University
Carlo Ginzburg, Professor Emeritus, UCLA and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa
Amos Goldberg, Professor, The Jonah M. Machover Chair in Holocaust Studies, Head of the Avraham Harman Research Institute of Contemporary Jewry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Leonard Grob, Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, Fairleigh Dickinson University
Jeffrey Grossman, Associate Professor, German and Jewish Studies, Chair of the German Department, University of Virginia
Atina Grossmann, Professor of History, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, The Cooper Union, New York
Wolf Gruner, Shapell-Guerin Chair in Jewish Studies and Founding Director of the USC Shoah Foundation Center for Advanced Genocide Research; Professor of History, University of Southern California
Anna Hájková, Associate Professor of Modern Continental European History, Warwick University
Elizabeth Heineman, Professor of History and of Gender, Women’s and Sexuality Studies, University of Iowa
Didi Herman, Professor of Law and Social Change, University of Kent
Dagmar Herzog, Distinguished Professor of History and Daniel Rose Faculty Scholar Graduate Center, The City University of New York (CUNY)
Jonathan Judaken, Professor, Spence L. Wilson Chair in the Humanities, Rhodes College
Marion Kaplan, Skirball Professor of Modern Jewish History, New York University
Brian Klug, Emeritus Fellow in Philosophy, St. Benet’s Hall, Oxford; Member of the Philosophy Faculty, Oxford University
Claudia Koonz, Professor Emeritus of History, Duke University
Tony Kushner, Professor, Parkes Institute for the Study of Jewish/non-Jewish Relations, University of Southampton
Dominick LaCapra, Professor Emeritus of History, Cornell University
Ian S. Lustick, Bess W. Heyman Chair, Department of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania
Shaul Magid, Professor of Jewish Studies, Dartmouth College
Samuel Moyn, Henry R. Luce Professor of Jurisprudence and Professor of History, Yale University
Susan Neiman, Professor Dr., Philosopher, Director of the Einstein Forum, Potsdam
Derek Penslar, William Lee Frost Professor of Jewish History, Harvard University
Andrea Pető, Professor, Central European University (CEU), Vienna; CEU Democracy Institute, Budapest
Göran Rosenberg, Writer, Sweden
Michael Rothberg, Professor of Comparative Literature and Holocaust Studies, UCLA
Victoria Sanford, Lehman Professor of Excellence 2021-2024, Professor of Anthropology, Lehman College, The Graduate Center, The City University of New York (CUNY)
Raz Segal, Associate Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Stockton University
Joshua Shanes, Associate Professor and Director of the Arnold Center for Israel Studies, College of Charleston
David Shulman, Professor Emeritus, Department of Asian Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Levi Spectre, Dr., Senior Lecturer at the Department of History, Philosophy and Judaic Studies, The Open University of Israel; Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University
Enzo Traverso, Professor in the Humanities, Department of History, Cornell University, New York
Peter Ullrich, Dr. Dr., Senior Researcher, Fellow at the Center for Research on Antisemitism, Technische Universität Berlin
Dov Waxman, Professor, The Rosalinde and Arthur Gilbert Foundation Chair in Israel Studies, Director of the UCLA Y&S Nazarian Center for Israel Studies, University of California (UCLA)
Yael Zerubavel, Professor Emeritus of Jewish Studies and History, fmr. Founding Director Bildner Center for the Study of Jewish Life, Rutgers University
Moshe Zimmermann, Professor Emeritus, The Richard Koebner Minerva Center for German History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Steven J. Zipperstein, Daniel E. Koshland Professor in Jewish Culture and History, Stanford University
Moshe Zuckermann, Professor Emeritus of History and Philosophy, Tel Aviv University
שיקו בהרAuthorג’ראלד עוד לא מסוגל לכתוב בעברית?ומדוע שלא תספרי כמה אייטמים הכניס בבמה הזו הימין הקיצוני לעומת המרכז הדמוקרטי? אין הרבה ציפיות מאשה שכל פרנסתה בנויה על התרת דם הסתה ושקר
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ActiveDana Barnettשיקו בהראין שום התרת דם, הסתה או שקר במה שאני כותבת. כל מה שאני כותבת מבוסס על מה שמופיע ממילא באינטרנט. קשה להאמין שאתה מאמין לשקרים של עצמך.
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- שיקו בהרAuthorאינך עושה דבר למעט התרת דם. ומה את חושבת הוליד את ברוך גולדשטיין ויגאל עמיר אם לא אנשים דוגמתך ודוגמת ג שטיינברג?
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ActiveDana Barnettשיקו בהראתה כל כך בור, זה לא יאמן. אין כל קשר בין העמותה שלי לעמותה של ג׳ראלד שטיינברג.
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- שיקו בהרAuthorDana Barnett יש קשר הדוק בין שניכם לבין אלימות רצחנית מול לא יהודים ויהודים דמוקרטים (הפצצה בבית שטרנהל )
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ActiveDana Barnettשיקו בהראין שמץ של אמת בדבריך. האמירות שלך הן הוצאת דיבה. תתנצל או שתתבע.
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- שיקו בהרAuthorDana Barnett תתבעי
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- שיקו בהר Authorטוב גם ללמוד עם על מחוייבותך לזכות הדיבור והדעה
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ActiveDana Barnettשיקו בהר אתה מעליל עלי עלילות דם בסגנון אנטישמי, אין לי שום כוונה להתייחס אל זה כאל דעה או זכות דיבור.
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